[BGBM-Logo] Lichen determination keys
- lichen genera of Iran -
[BGBM-Foto klein]
INTRODUCTION. The lichen flora of Iran is still very poorly known. Since two years the Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Plant Taxonomy Division, pays attention to this field of research and is very eager to develop it. It started an intense collecting program in different parts of the country, and stimulated Iranian students to become involved. For taxonomic expertise, scientific collaboration with European universities and institutions was sought and many duplicates for identification were sent out.
Bilateral cooperation with Dr. Harrie Sipman of the Free University of Berlin and Prof. Mark Seaward of Bradford University resulted in the key presented here. It is published in the internet to make it directly available for students worldwide and to enable regular updating.
The lichen flora of Iran, about 3 times as large as France, with a large variation in climate, geology and topography, ranging from hot deserts to cool mountain forests and alpine meadows, is likely to be very rich. Certainly the present key covers only a small part of this flora. May it contribute to the discovery of many more Iranian genera and become a step on the way to a complete and solid key for the Iranian lichens. --- Dr. Ali Asghar Maassoumi , 17 September 2003
For more information on Iranian lichens see http://www.myco-lich.ir/national-checklists.
[Glypholecia scabra]

Provisional key for lichen genera and some species of Iran

by H. Sipman, 17 Sept. 2003

NOTE. The key includes all genera currently reported from Iran and some common or characteristic species. Because the lichen flora of Iran is very incompletely known, many more genera are expected. For explanation of the terms, see glossary. Please inform me, when you find additional genera, so that I can add them to the key.
UPDATED 3 Oct. 2003, 1 March 2004, 8 April 2006, 19 September 2006.

1a Thallus gelatinous: dark brown to blackish, much swollen when wet and often wrinkled when dry; photobiont cyanobacteria producing much jelly, which envelops the algal cells and the hyphae --- 2
1b Thallus not gelatinous: variously coloured but often pale grey, not much swollen when wet and usually not wrinkled when dry; photobiont green algae, rarely cyanobacteria, not producing much jelly, algal cells and hyphae surrounded by air --- 25

2a Photobiont Nostoc, with rounded cells in chains, embedded in continuous jelly --- 3
2b Photobiont not Nostoc --- 6

3a Thallus with cellular outer layer --- 4
3b Thallus without cellular outer layer --- 5

4a Thallus black, foliose, underside covered by fine hairs --- Leptogium saturninum (Dicks.) Nyl.
4b Thallus grey, variously shaped: underside not hairy --- Leptogium

5a Ascospores septate --- Collema
5b Ascospores simple --- Staurolemma

6a (2) Thallus crustose, composed of adjacent, to ca. 1 mm tall segments --- 7
6b Thallus foliose to fruticose, composed of over 1 mm long lobes --- 8

7a Photobiont with reddish gelatinous sheaths, at least near thallus margin; on siliceous rock --- Pyrenopsis
7b Photobiont with colourless gelatinous sheaths; on limestone --- Psorotichia

8a Thallus composed of ca. 2-5 mm wide, more or less lobed, dark brown to black warts, resembling Toninia but with cyanobacteria as photobiont and with immersed ascocarps; on soil, sometimes in rock fissures --- Gloeoheppia turgida (Ach.) Gyeln.
8b Thallus with cylindrical to flattened lobes; usually growing directly on rock --- 9

9a Thallus fruticose --- 10
9b Thallus foliose, centrally attached and more or less deeply divided into flattened slips --- 12

10a Thallus small, forming to ca. 1 mm tall cushions, with terminal apothecia --- Peccania
10b Thallus lobes several mm long, more or less flattened --- 11

10a Ultimate divisions of thallus terete-coralloid and delicate, blueish grey --- Polychidium
10b Ultimate divisons of thallus often folded or flattened, over 1 mm thick, black --- Lichinella

12a Thallus in section with distinct medulla containing well-recognizable, separate hyphae and no photobiont --- Thyrea
12b Thallus in section without distinct medulla, containing dense photobiont cells and dense, scarcely distinguishable hyphae throughout the thallus --- Anema


25a (1) Thallus fruticose, usually several cm high; segments mainly standing up or hanging freely in the air, without cilia or rhizines; segments when flattened on both sides of similar structure and colour --- 26
25b Thallus foliose or crustose, flat and mainly parallel to the substrate; upper side clearly different from the underside --- 50

26a Thallus composed of erect, hollow, cylindrical or cup-shaped parts (podetia) and squamules: genus Cladonia; a few common species are keyed out here --- 27
26b Thallus lobes all similar, erect or pending, cylindrical or more or less flattened --- 31

27a Podetia wineglass-shaped, with granular surface --- Cladonia pyxidata (L.) Hoffm.
27b Podetia cylindrical, more or less branched --- 28

28a Podetia scarcely branched, with mealy (sorediate) surface --- Cladonia awasthiana Ahti & Upreti
28b Podetia densely branched, with mostly smooth surface --- 29

29a Podetia greenish grey, white-maculate --- Cladonia rangiformis Hoffm.
29b Podetia predominantly brown, sometimes longitudinally split --- 30

30a Podetia completely without mealy (sorediate) areas on the surface --- Cladonia furcata (Huds.) Schrad.
30b Podetia with mealy areas on the surface --- Cladonia scabriuscula (Delise) Nyl.

31a (26) Thallus lobes flattened, solid --- 32
31b Thallus lobes cylindrical, solid or with central cavity --- 36

32a Thallus lobes with greenish grey upper side and pale yellow underside --- Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach.
32b Thallus lobes the same colour on both sides, more or less greenish grey --- 33

33a Thallus greenish to grey, with smooth surface throughout; ascospores pale, uniseptate --- 34
33b Thallus yellow (except in deep shade), with smooth surface; ascospores pale, polarilocular --- Xanthoria

34a Thallus greenish grey, with smooth surface throughout --- Ramalina
34b Thallus pale grey, short-haired, at least at lobe tips --- 35

35a Apothecia with yellow disc; ascospores pale, uniseptate with thick septum; thallus sometimes with yellow spots --- Seirophora
35b Apothecia with black disc; ascospores grey, uniseptate with thin septum; thallus never with yellow spots --- Tornabea scutellifera (With.) J.R.Laundon

36a Thallus lobes with central cavity, rod-shaped, few cm long and over 1 mm wide --- 37
36b Thallus lobes compact, tread-like --- 38

37a On soil; thallus pale grey, richly branched, not sorediate; presence in Iran needs confirmation, probably mistake for Cladonia rangiformis --- Cladonia rangiferina (L.) F.H.Wigg.
37b On tree bark or rock; thallus greenish grey, scarcely branched --- Ramalina

38a Thallus with elastic, stretchable, central string --- 39
38b Thallus without central string --- 40

39a Thallus draped over branches, thicker parts saucisson-like with inflated segments separated by constrictions --- Usnea articulata (L.) Hoffm.
39b Thallus erect or hanging from branches or along trunks, when hanging without inflated segments --- Usnea

40a Thallus brown --- Bryoria fuscescens (Gyeln.) Brodo & D.Hawksw.
40b Thallus pale to greenish grey --- 41

41a Thallus pale grey, K+ yellow, branchlets with straight tips --- Bryoria capillaris (Ach.) Brodo & D.Hawksw.
41b Thallus greenish grey, K-, branchlets with hooked tips --- Ramalina thrausta (Ach.) Nyl.


50a (25) Thallus foliose, lower side free from substrate over most of its surface and attached by rhizines or small patches of the lower side --- 51
50b Thallus crustose or squamulose, attached to the substrate with the whole lower surface or with raised, free margins --- 100

51a Rhizines or cilia (marginal rhizines) present --- 52
51b Rhizines and cilia absent --- 81

52a Cilia present --- 53
52b Cilia absent --- 57

53a On soil; thallus lobes incurved when dry and showing pale yellow underside --- Cladonia foliacea (Huds.) Willd.
53b On tree bark or rock; thallus lobes not incurved when dry, lower side not visible from above --- 54

54a Thallus yellow, small; lobes to ca. 1 mm wide and 2 mm long --- Candelaria concolor (Dicks.) Stein
54b Thallus pale to greenish grey --- 55

55a Thallus upper surface with short hairs, at least at the lobe tips --- Anaptychia
55b Thallus upper side without hairs --- 56

56a Thallus deeply divided, lobes ca. 1 mm wide, linear; cilia prominent at lobe tips, to ca. 1 mm long --- Physcia
56b Thallus shallowly divided, lobes ca. 1 cm wide; cilia prominent at lobe tips, to ca. 1 mm long --- Parmotrema perlatum (Eschw.) M. Choisy
56c Thallus deeply divided, lobes irregular; cilia mainly marginal, tiny, ca. 0.1 mm long --- Myelochroa

57a Thallus lower side veined or with reticulate grooves; upper side often tomentose; rhizines often short and weakly conglutinated --- 58
57b Thallus lower side not veined; upper side always smooth; rhizines always strongly conglutinated --- 59

58a Thallus upper side reticulate-ridged --- Lobaria
58b Thallus upper side flat --- Peltigera

59a Thallus umbilicate; rhizines without attachment function --- 60
59b Thallus not umbilicate, attached by rhizines --- 61

60a Perithecia present --- Dermatocarpon vellereum Zschacke
60b Perithecia absent --- Umbilicaria

61a Pseudocyphellae present on upper side: white, rounded or elongate spots --- 62
61b Pseudocyphellae absent --- 64

62a Pseudocyphellae elongate, in reticulate pattern; medulla K+ yellow turning red --- Parmelia
62b Pseudocyphellae round, dot-like --- 63

63a Thallus applanate, with rhizines to near the lobe tips; medulla C+ red in some species --- Punctelia
63b Thallus with ascending, wide marginal lobes without rhizines below; medulla C- --- Cetrelia

64a Ascocarps perithecia; thallus of crustose aspect, composed of few mm wide, rounded sectors --- Neocatapyrenium
64b Ascocarps apothecia; thallus of leafy aspect, in larger, usually several cm wide, deeply lobes patches --- 65

65a Thallus upper cortex K+ yellow, KC- (containing atranorin); thallus pale grey --- 66
65b Thallus upper cortex K-, KC+ yellow (containing usnic acid); thallus yellowish- to greenish grey --- 67
65c Thallus upper cortex K+ dark redviolet, KC- (containing parietin); thallus yellow to orange; ascospores polarilocular --- Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th.Fr.
65d Thallus upper cortex K-, KC- (without atranorin, usnic acid or parietin); thallus pale grey, brownish to olive-green --- 68

66a Medulla C+ red --- Parmelina
66b Medulla C- --- Physcia

67a Thallus sorediate; on bark, occasionally over moss on rock --- Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale
67b Thallus not sorediate; not on bark, on rock or soil --- Xanthoparmelia

68a Thallus olive-brown to brown; ascospores colourless, not septate --- 69
68b Thallus dark grey; ascospores grey, uniseptate --- Phaeophyscia
68c Thallus pale grey to white; ascospores grey, uniseptate; rhizines often with perpendicular, dense branchlets --- Physconia

69a On rock; thallus closely attached --- Neofuscelia
69b On tree bark, occasionally on rock; thallus loosely attached --- 70

70a Thallus large, often several dm wide; apothecia large and numerous, often over 1 mm wide --- Pleurosticta acetabulum (Neck.) Elix & Lumbsch
70b Thallus small, usually few cm wide; apothecia rarely over 5 mm wide --- Melanelia


81a (51) Thallus umbilicate, on rocks --- 82
81b Thallus not umbilicate, on soil or bark --- 84

82a Thallus with perithecia --- Dermatocarpon miniatum (L.) W.Mann
82b Thallus without perithecia --- 83

83a Apothecia immersed in thallus; ascospores many per ascus --- Glypholecia scabra (Pers.) Müll.Arg.
83b Apothecia finally sessile on thallus with lecanorine margin; ascospores 8/ascus --- Rhizoplaca

84a Thallus yellow to orange, with parietin, K+ dark redviolet --- Xanthoria
84b Thallus grey, K- or + pale yellow --- 85

85a On soil or moss over limestone; apothecia on the bottom of depressions in the thallus --- Solorina saccata (L.) Ach.
85b On tree bark --- 86

86a Thallus lobes erect, greenish grey --- Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach.
86b Thallus lobes closely attached, seemingly crustose, pale grey --- Hyperphyscia adglutinata (Floerke) Mayrh. & Poelt


100a (50) Thallus lobed at the margins or consisting completely of squamules --- 101
100b Thallus with entire margins and continuous or more ore less fissured and divided into areoles --- 150

101a Thallus yellow to orange, K + dark redviolet or pale reddish --- 102
101b Thallus grey to brown --- 106

102a Thallus K+ dark redviolet --- 103
102b Thallus K- or weakly K+ reddish --- 104

103a On rock or bark, rarely on moss; ascospores polarilocular --- Caloplaca
103b Among moss on soil over rock; ascospores not septate --- Fulgensia

104a On bark or soil --- 105
104b On rock of steep cliffs --- Pleopsidium

105a On bark; thallus lobes free from substrate --- Candelaria concolor (Dicks.) Stein
105b On mossy soil; thallus underside completely attached to substrate --- Candelariella placodizans (Nyl.) H.Magn.

106a (101) Thallus squamules attached to substrate only by their oldest parts, underside free and often visible from above; squamules elongate --- Cladonia
106b Thallus squamules attached to substrate by more or less bundled hyphae usually covering the whole underside, which is not visible from above; squamules rounded or elongate --- 107

107a Thallus producing perithecia, in most species frequently --- 108
107b Thallus producing apothecia, in many species infrequently --- 109

108a Hymenium without algal cells; ascospores not septate, colourless --- Placidium
108b Hymenium with ca. 5 mu wide algal cells; ascospores muriform, finally brown --- Endocarpon

109a Photobiont cyanobacteria --- 110
109b Photobiont green algae --- 111

110a Asci with 8 spores; growing on soil --- Heppia
110b Asci with many spores; usually growing on rock --- Peltula

111a Growing directly on rock --- 112
111b Growing on bark, mosses or soil --- 119

112a Ascospores grey, uniseptate --- Dimelaena oreina (Ach.) Norman
112b Ascospores colourless --- 113

113a Apothecia immersed in the thallus --- 114
113b Apothecia sessile on the thallus --- 115

114a Ascospores not septate, many per ascus --- Acarospora bullata Anzi
114b Ascospores septate or not, 8/ascus --- Lobothallia

115a Apothecia with lecideine margin; disc usually black, often with whitish pruina --- 116
115b Apothecia with lecanorine margin; disc usually shades of brown or yellow --- 118

116a Ascospores not septate; apothecia dark brown to black, not pruinose --- 117
116b Ascospores septate; apothecia black, often with whitish pruina --- Toninia

117a Apothecia black; on siliceous stone --- Psorula rufonigra (Tuck.) G.Schneider
117b Ascospores brown; on calcareous stone --- Mycobilimbia lurida (Ach.) Hafellner & Türk

118a Ascospores septate --- Solenopsora
118b Ascospores not septate --- Lecanora

119a (111) On soil or among mosses on soil or rock --- 120
119b On bark (thallus free from substrate but very closely attached) --- Hyperphyscia

120a Apothecia with lecanorine margin and yellow to brown disc, often present --- 121
120b Apothecia with lecideine margin and black or white-pruinose disc, often absent --- 122

121a On humous soil or on moss over humous soil or bark; thallus brownish --- Psoroma hypnorum (Vahl) Gray
121b On mineral soil or on moss over rock; thallus greenish to yellowish grey --- Squamarina

122a Thallus composed of rounded and more or less flattened parts, shades of brown to grey but often white-pruinose --- 123
122b Thallus deeply lobed, white --- Buellia zoharyi Galun

123a Ascospores not septate --- Psora
123b Ascospores septate --- Toninia


150a (100) Ascocarps absent, pycnidia, soredia or isidia present (species which regularly produce ascocarps are NOT included here, even though many specimens may be without) --- 151
150b Ascocarps present --- 160

151a Thallus yellow to green --- 152
151b Thallus pale grey --- 153

152a Thallus consisting of dense, ca. 50 mu thick soredia --- Candelariella xanthostigma (Ach.) Lettau
152b Thallus consisting of scattered, ca. 200 mu thick granules --- Chrysothrix candelaris (L.) J.R.Laundon

153a Thallus without conidia, producing soredia --- Lepraria
153b Thallus producing conidia; soredia absent --- 154

154a Pycnidia present, in ca. 0.5 mm wide, white warts --- Opegrapha vermicellifera (Kunze) J.R.Laundon
154b Thalloconidia present, produced in ca. 1 mm wide, blackish, rounded spots --- Milospium graphideorum (Nyl.) D.Hawksw.


160a (150) Ascocarps with persistently dot-like opening (perithecia, or apothecia with dot-like disc) --- 161
160b Ascocarps with wider opening, disc-like (apothecia) or elongate (lirellae), sometimes punctiform in young stages --- 180

161a Growing on bark --- 162
161b Growing on rock --- 165

162a Ascospores grey, 4-celled --- Pyrenula
162b Ascospores colourless, variously septate --- 163

163a Ascospores not septate --- 164
163b Ascospores one-septate --- Acrocordia gemmata (Ach.) A.Massal.

164a Ascospores thick-walled and usually over 50 mu long; ascocarps apothecia, without exciple --- Pertusaria
164b Ascospores thin-walled, under 30 mu long; ascocarps perithecia, with more or less carbonized exciple --- Thrombium

165a Ascospores colourless, not septate --- 166
165b Ascospores grey, muriform --- 170

166a Thallus flat and less than 1 mm thick, sometimes fissured and areolate --- 167
166b Thallus either over 1 mm thick or composed of scattered, rounded segments --- 168

167a Paraphyses persistent --- Thrombium
167b Paraphyses soon disappearing, absent when spores are present --- Verrucaria

168a Thallus continuous or areolate, over 1 mm thick; on limestone --- 169
168b Thallus of scattered, rounded segments; usually on soil --- Placidium

169a Thallus completely areolate, areoles with black rims --- Placopyrenium bucekii (Nadv. & Servit) Breuss
169b Thallus fissured to areolate, uniformly coloured --- Placocarpus schaereri (Fr.) Breuss

170a Paraphyses persistent; no algal cells in hymenium --- Diploschistes actinostomus (Pers.) Zahlbr.
170b Paraphyses disappearing in sporulating ascocarps; algal cells in hymenium --- Staurothele


180a (160) Ascocarps elongate and growing at the ends (lirellae) --- 181
180b Ascocarps rounded and growing in all directions (apothecia) --- 190

181a Paraphyses straight and unbranched; hymenium I-negative --- 182
181b Paraphyses branched and anastomosing; hymenium I+ orange-red or blue --- 184

182a Ascospores persistently colourless; apothecium labia thick and carbonized --- 183
182b Ascospores grey when ripe; apothecium labia thin --- Phaeographis dendritica (Ach.) Müll.Arg.

183a Ascospores transversely septate --- Graphis scripta (L.) Ach.
183b Ascospores muriform --- Graphina analoga (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

184a Ascocarp labia thick and carbonized --- 185
185b Ascocarp labia thin or absent, not carbonized --- 186

185a Ascospores bicellular; lichenized thallus indistinct or absent --- Melaspilea
185b Ascospores pluricellular; lichenized thallus distinct --- Opegrapha

186a Asci only slightly thickened at apex, about 5 times as long as wide --- Enterographa
186b Asci with strongly swollen apex, 2-3 times as long as wide --- Arthonia


190a (180) Ascospores grey to brown when ripe --- 191
190b Ascospores persistently colourless or somewhat brown when decaying --- 200

191a Ascospores bicellular --- 192
191b Ascospores pluricellular --- 195

192a Ascospores in a powdery layer on top of the apothecia, staining the finger when touched --- Pyrgidium montellicum (Beltr.) Tibell
192b Ascospores ripening inside the hymenium, apothecia not staining --- 193

193a Ascospores with unequally thickened walls and septa when ripe --- Rinodina
193b Ascospores with thin walls when ripe --- 194

193a Apothecium margin lecideine --- Buellia
193b Apothecium margin lecanorine --- Rinodinella

195a Paraphyses branched and anastomosing; ascospores with halo --- Rhizocarpon
195b Paraphyses unbranched, straight; ascospores without halo --- 196

196a Apothecia sessile; margin lecideine, soon disappearing --- Diplotomma
196b Apothecia immersed in thallus, which sometimes forms a distinct, lecanorine margin around it --- Diploschistes


200a (190) Ascospores not septate --- 201
200b Ascospores septate --- 230

201a Thallus yellow --- 202
201b Thallus grey to brown --- 203

202a Ascospores 8/ascus; apothecia sessile, with lecanorine margin --- Candelariella
202b Ascospores many/ascus; apothecia immersed, without distinct margin --- Acarospora

203a Ascospores 8/ascus --- 204
203b Ascospores more than 16/ascus --- 225

204a Apothecia immersed in the thallus, without distinct margin --- 205
204b Apothecia sessile, with distinct margin at least when young --- 209

205a Asci with distinct I+ blue staining in the tholus --- 206
205b Asci without I+ blue staining in the tholus --- 208

206a Tholus with I+ blue tube (asci of Porpidia-type) --- 207
206b Tholus with I+ blue cap, without tubular structure --- Eiglera flavida (Hepp) Hafellner

207a Ascospores I-negative, without halo; ascocarps separated from surrounding thallus by a split --- Immersaria
207b Ascospores I+ pale blue, with halo; epithecium brown --- Bellemerea cupreoatra (Nyl.) Clauz. & Roux

208a Epithecium olive-green to -brown --- Aspicilia
208b Epithecium brown --- Hymenelia

209a (204) Ascospores over 40 mu long --- 210
209b Ascospores under 30 mu long --- 211

210a Ascospores up to ca. 60 mu long, with thin (c. 1 mu) wall --- Megaspora
210b Ascospores often much larger, with thick (c. 5 mu) wall --- Pertusaria

211a Apothecia with lecanorine margin --- 212
211b Apothecia with lecideine or biatorine margin --- 214

212a Hypothecium pale brown; hymenium pale violet; tholus with pointed axial mass (asci of Bacidia-type) --- Tephromela
212b Hypothecium and hymenium colourless; tholus with rounded axial mass (asci of Lecanora-type) --- 213

213a Apothecia with cupular exciple; conidiophores pleurogenous --- Protoparmelia
213b Apothecia without cupular exciple; conidiophores acrogenous --- Lecanora

214a Ascocarps single or occasionally few together; thallus mostly crustose --- 215
214b Ascocarps in groups of several hemisperical merocarps; thallus subsquamulose --- Anamylopsora pulcherrima (Vain.) Timdal

215a On limestone --- 216
215b On siliceous stone or bark --- 217

216a Apothecia black; tholus with I+ blue tubular structure (asci of Porpidia-type) --- Farnoldia jurana (Schaerer) Hertel
216b Apothecia orange to red; asci nor of Porpidia-type --- Protoblastenia

217a Ascocarps darkbrown to black --- 218
217b Ascocarps pink to brown --- Trapelia

218a Tholus with I+ blue cap over a rounded axial mass (asci of Lecanora-type) --- Lecanora marginata (Schaer.) Hertel & Rambold
218b Tholus with I+ blue cap over a pointed axial mass (asci of Bacidia-type) --- Lecidella
218c Tholus with thin, I+ blue cap restricted to its apical part (asci of Lecidea-type) --- Lecidea
218d Tholus with I+ blue tubular structure (asci of Porpidia-type) --- Porpidia


225a (203) Apothecia immersed in the thallus or substrate --- 226
225b Apothecia sessile on the thallus --- 217

226a Thallus above the substrate, areolate --- Acarospora
226b Thallus indistinct, in bark --- Piccolia ochrophora (Nyl.) Hafellner

227a Apothecia with carbonized exciple and carbonized ridges on the disc --- Polysporina
227b Apothecia not carbonized, with smooth disc --- Sarcogyne


230a (200) Ascospores with transverse septa only --- 231
230b Ascospores with transverse and longitudinal septa; ascocarps flat and without differentiated margin --- Arthothelium

231a Ascospores polarilocular, with single, thick septum and thin walls; apothecia and thallus often orange, K+ dark redviolet --- Caloplaca
231b Ascospores with thin septa and walls --- 232

232a Ascospores with one septum --- 233
232b Ascospores with two or more septa --- 237

233a Apothecia without margin, flat or semiglobose --- 234
233b Apothecia with distinct margin, flat or slightly concave or convex --- 235

234a Apothecia flat; photobiont usually Trentepohlia; ascospores often with one enlarged end cell --- Arthonia
234b Apothecia semiglobose; photobiont not Trentepohlia; ascospores with equal end cells --- Micarea

235a Apothecia with lecanorine margin --- Lecania
235b Apothecia with biatorine margin --- Fellhanera bouteillei (Desm.) Vezda
235c Apothecia with lecideine margin --- 236

236a Thallus smooth --- Catillaria
236b Thallus composed of wart-like or somewhat flattened segments --- Toninia

237a (232) Apothecia with lecanorine margin --- 238
237b Apothecia with biatorine to lecideine margin --- 239

238a Apothecia with red disc; spores over 4 cells long, straight --- Haematomma
238b Apothecia with brown disc; spores 4-celled, curved --- Lecania koerberiana J.Lahm

239a Ascospores 4-celled, straight --- Schismatomma decolorans (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Clauzade & Vezda
239b Ascospores over 4-celled --- 240

240a Paraphyses loose, branched towards the apex, with swollen tips with brown caps --- Bactrospora
240b Paraphyses conglutinated by hymenial gelatine, without brown-capped, swollen tips --- 241

241a Ascus tholus with I+ blue cap over a pointed axial mass (asci of Bacidia-type) --- Bacidia
241b Ascus tholus with I+ blue cap over a rounded axial mass (asci of Lecanora-type) --- Scoliciosporum

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