International Code of Botanical Nomenclature

(Tokyo Code), Electronic version



Article 46

46.1. For the indication of the name of a taxon to be accurate and complete, and in order that the date may be readily verified, it is necessary to cite the name of the author(s) who validly published the name concerned unless the provisions for autonyms apply (Art. 22.1 and 26.1).

Ex. 1. Rosaceae Juss., Rosa L., Rosa gallica L., Rosa gallica var. eriostyla R. Keller, Rosa gallica L. var. gallica.

46.2. A name of a new taxon must be attributed to the author or authors to whom both the name and the validating description or diagnosis were ascribed, even when authorship of the publication is different. A new combination or a nomen novum must be attributed to the author or authors to whom it was ascribed when, in the publication in which it appears, it is explicitly stated that they contributed in some way to that publication. Art. 46.4 notwithstanding, authorship of a new name or combination must always be accepted as ascribed, even when it differs from authorship of the publication, when at least one author is common to both.

Ex. 2. The name Viburnum ternatum was published in Sargent (Trees & Shrubs 2: 37. 1907). It was ascribed to "Rehd.", and the whole account of the species was signed "Alfred Rehder" at the foot of the article. The name is therefore cited as V. ternatum Rehder.

Ex. 3. In a paper by Hilliard & Burtt (1986) names of new species of Schoenoxiphium, including S. altum, were ascribed to Kukkonen, preceded by a statement "The following diagnostic descriptions of new species have been supplied by Dr. I. Kukkonen in order to make the names available for use". The name is therefore cited as S. altum Kukkonen.

Ex. 4. In Torrey & Gray (1838) the names Calyptridium and C. monandrum were ascribed to "Nutt. mss.", and the descriptions were enclosed in double quotes indicating that Nuttall wrote them, as acknowledged in the preface. The names are therefore cited as Calyptridium Nutt. and C. monandrum Nutt.

Ex. 5. The name Brachystelma was published by Sims (1822) who by implication ascribed it to Brown and added "Brown, Mscr." at the end of the generic diagnosis, indicating that Brown wrote it. The name is therefore cited as Brachystelma R. Br.

Ex. 6. Green (1985) ascribed the new combination Neotysonia phyllostegia to Paul G. Wilson and elsewhere in the same publication acknowledged his assistance. The name is therefore cited as N. phyllostegia (F. Muell.) Paul G. Wilson.

Ex. 7. The authorship of Steyerbromelia discolor L. B. Sm. & H. Rob. (1984) is accepted as originally ascribed, although the new species was described in a paper authored by Smith alone. The same applies to the new combination Sophora tomentosa subsp. occidentalis (L.) Brummitt (in Kirkia 5: 265. 1966), thus ascribed, published in a paper authored jointly by Brummitt & Gillett.

Note 1. When authorship of a name differs from authorship of the publication in which it was validly published, both are sometimes cited, connected by the word "in". In such a case, "in" and what follows are part of a bibliographic citation and are better omitted unless the place of publication is being cited.

46.3. For the purposes of this Article, ascription is the direct association of the name of a person or persons with a new name or description or diagnosis of a taxon. Mention of an author's name in a list of synonyms is not ascription, nor is reference to a basionym or a replaced synonym, including bibliographic errors, nor is reference to a homonym, nor is a formal error.

Ex. 8. Hypnum crassinervium Wilson (1833) was not ascribed to Taylor by Wilson's citing "Hypnum crassinervium Dr. Taylor's MS" in the list of synonyms.

Ex. 9. Lichen debilis Sm. (1812) was not ascribed to Turner and Borrer by Smith's citing "Calicium debile Turn. and Borr. Mss." as a synonym.

Ex. 10. When Opiz (1852) wrote "Hemisphace Bentham" he did not ascribe the generic name to Bentham but provided an indirect reference to the basionym, Salvia sect. Hemisphace Benth. (see Art. 32 Ex. 5).

Ex. 11. When Brotherus (1907) published "Dichelodontium nitidulum Hooker & Wilson" he provided an indirect reference to the basionym, Leucodon nitidulus Hook. f. & Wilson, and did not ascribe the new combination to Hooker and Wilson. He did, however, ascribe to them the simultaneously published name of his new genus, Dichelodontium.

Ex. 12. When Sirodot (1872) wrote "Lemanea Bory" he in fact published a later homonym (see Art. 48 Ex. 1). His reference to Bory is not therefore ascription of the later homonym, Lemanea Sirodot, to Bory.

46.4. A name of a new taxon must be attributed to the author or authors of the publication in which it appears when only the name but not the validating description or diagnosis was ascribed to a different author or different authors. A new combination or a nomen novum must be attributed to the author or authors of the publication in which it appears, although it was ascribed to a different author or to different authors, when no separate statement was made that they contributed in some way to that publication. However, in both cases authorship as ascribed, followed by "ex", may be inserted before the name(s) of the publishing author(s).

Ex. 13. Seemann (1865) published Gossypium tomentosum "Nutt. mss.", followed by a validating description not ascribed to Nuttall; the name may be cited as Gossypium tomentosum Nutt. ex Seem. or G. tomentosum Seem.

Ex. 14. The name Lithocarpus polystachyus published by Rehder (1919) was based on Quercus polystachya A. DC. (1864), ascribed by Candolle to "Wall.! list n. 2789" but formerly a nomen nudum; Rehder's combination may be cited as L. polystachyus (Wall. ex A. DC.) Rehder or L. polystachyus (A. DC.) Rehder.

Ex. 15. Lilium tianschanicum was described by Grubov (1977) as a new species and its name was ascribed to Ivanova; since there is no indication that Ivanova provided the validating description, the name may be cited as L. tianschanicum N. A. Ivanova ex Grubov or L. tianschanicum Grubov.

Ex. 16. In a paper by Boufford, Tsi and Wang (1990) the name Rubus fanjingshanensis was ascribed to Lu with no indication that he provided the description; the name should be attributed to Boufford & al. or to L. T. Lu ex Boufford & al.

Ex. 17. Green (1985) ascribed the new combination Tersonia cyathiflora to "(Fenzl) A. S. George"; since Green nowhere mentioned that George had contributed in any way, the combining author must be cited as A. S. George ex J. W. Green or just J. W. Green.

46.5. The citation of an author who published the name before the starting point of the group concerned may be indicated by the use of the word "ex". For groups with a starting point later than 1753, when a pre-starting point name was changed in rank or taxonomic position by the first author who validly published it, the name of the pre-starting point author may be added in parentheses, followed by "ex".

Ex. 18. Linnaeus (1754) ascribed the name Lupinus to the pre-starting-point author Tournefort; the name may be cited as Lupinus Tourn. ex L. (1753) or Lupinus L.

Ex. 19. Lyngbya glutinosa C. Agardh (Syst. Alg.: 73. 1824) was taken up by Gomont in the publication which marks the starting point of the "Nostocaceae heterocysteae" (in Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., ser. 7, 15: 339. 1892) as Hydrocoleum glutinosum. This may be cited as H. glutinosum (C. Agardh) ex Gomont.

46.6. In determining the correct author citation, only internal evidence in the publication (as defined in Art. 35.4) where the name was validly published is to be accepted, including ascription of the name, statements in the introduction, title, or acknowledgements, and typographical or stylistic distinctions in the text.

Ex. 20. Names first published in Britton & Brown's Illustrated flora of the northern United States (1896-1898; ed. 2, 1913) must, unless ascribed to Britton alone (see Art. 46.2), be attributed to "Britton & A. Br.", since the title page attributes the whole work to both, even though it is generally accepted that A. Brown did not participate in writing it.

Ex. 21. Although the descriptions in Aiton's Hortus kewensis (1789) are generally considered to have been written by Solander or Dryander, the names of new taxa published there must be attributed to Aiton, the stated author of the work, except where a name and description were both ascribed in that work to somebody else.

Ex. 22. The name Andreaea angustata was published in a work of Limpricht (1885) with the ascription "nov. sp. Lindb. in litt. ad Breidler 1884", but there is no internal evidence that Lindberg had supplied the validating description. Authorship is therefore to be cited as "Limpr." or "Lindb. ex Limpr."

Note 2. Authors publishing new names and wishing to establish that other persons' names followed by "ex" may precede theirs in authorship citation may adopt the "ex" citation in the protologue.

Ex. 23. In validating the name Nothotsuga, Page (1989) cited it as "Nothotsuga H.-H. Hu ex C. N. Page", noting that in 1951 Hu had published it as a nomen nudum; the name may be attributed to Hu ex C. N. Page or just C. N. Page.

Ex. 24. Atwood (1981) ascribed the name of a new species, Maxillaria mombachoënsis, to "Heller ex Atwood", with a note stating that it was originally named by Heller, then deceased; the name may be attributed to A. H. Heller ex J. T. Atwood or just J. T. Atwood.

Recommendation 46A

46A.1. Authors' names placed after names of plants may be abbreviated, unless they are very short. For this purpose, particles should be suppressed unless they are an inseparable part of the name, and the first letters should be given without any omission (Lam. for J. B. P. A. Monet Chevalier de Lamarck, but De Wild. for E. De Wildeman).

46A.2. If a name of one syllable is long enough to make it worthwhile to abridge it, the first consonants only should be given (Fr. for Elias Magnus Fries); if the name has two or more syllables, the first syllable and the first letter of the following one should be taken, or the two first when both are consonants (Juss. for Jussieu, Rich. for Richard).

46A.3. When it is necessary to give more of a name to avoid confusion between names beginning with the same syllable, the same system should be followed. For instance, two syllables should be given together with the one or two first consonants of the third; or one of the last characteristic consonants of the name be added (Bertol. for Bertoloni, to distinguish it from Bertero; Michx. for Michaux, to distinguish it from Micheli).

46A.4. Given names or accessory designations serving to distinguish two botanists of the same name should be abridged in the same way (A. Juss. for Adrien de Jussieu, Burm. f. for Burman filius, J. F. Gmel. for Johann Friedrich Gmelin, J. G. Gmel. for Johann Georg Gmelin, C. C. Gmel. for Carl Christian Gmelin, S. G. Gmel. for Samuel Gottlieb Gmelin, Müll. Arg. for Jean Müller of Aargau).

46A.5. When it is a well-established custom to abridge a name in another manner, it is advisable to conform to it (L. for Linnaeus, DC. for Augustin Pyramus de Candolle, St.-Hil. for Saint-Hilaire, R. Br. for Robert Brown).

Note 1. Brummitt & Powell's Authors of plant names (1992) provides unambiguous standard abbreviations, in conformity with the present Recommendation, for a large number of authors of plant names, and these abbreviations have been used for author citations through-out the present Code.

Recommendation 46B

46B.1. In citing the author of the scientific name of a taxon, the romanization of the author's name given in the original publication should normally be accepted. Where an author failed to give a romanization, or where an author has at different times used different romanizations, then the romanization known to be preferred by the author or that most frequently adopted by the author should be accepted. In the absence of such information the author's name should be romanized in accordance with an internationally available standard.

46B.2. Authors of scientific names whose personal names are not written in Roman letters should romanize their names, preferably (but not necessarily) in accordance with an internationally available standard and, as a matter of typographical convenience, without diacritical signs. Once authors have selected the romanization of their personal names, they should use it consistently thereafter. Whenever possible, authors should not permit editors or publishers to change the romanization of their personal names.

Recommendation 46C

46C.1. After a name published jointly by two authors, the names of both authors should be cited, linked by the word "et" or by an ampersand (&).

Ex. 1. Didymopanax gleasonii Britton et Wilson (or Britton & Wilson).

46C.2. After a name published jointly by more than two authors, the citation should be restricted to the name of the first author followed by "et al." or "& al.", except in the original publication.

Ex. 2. Lapeirousia erythrantha var. welwitschii (Baker) Geerinck, Lisowski, Malaisse & Symoens (in Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique 105: 336. 1972) should be cited as L. erythrantha var. welwitschii (Baker) Geerinck & al.

Recommendation 46D

46D.1. Authors should cite their own names after each new name they publish rather than refer to themselves by expressions such as "nobis" (nob.) or "mihi" (m.).

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