International Code of Botanical Nomenclature

(Tokyo Code), Electronic version



Article 33

33.1. A combination (autonyms excepted) is not validly published unless the author definitely associates the final epithet with the name of the genus or species, or with its abbreviation.

Ex. 1. Combinations validly published: In Linnaeus's Species plantarum the placing of the epithet in the margin opposite the name of the genus clearly associates the epithet with the name of the genus. The same result is attained in Miller's Gardeners dictionary, ed. 8, by the inclusion of the epithet in parentheses immediately after the name of the genus, in Steudel's Nomenclator botanicus by the arrangement of the epithets in a list headed by the name of the genus, and in general by any typographical device which associates an epithet with a particular generic or specific name.

Ex. 2. Combinations not validly published: Rafinesque's statement under Blephilia that "Le type de ce genre est la Monarda ciliata Linn." (in J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. Arts 89: 98. 1819) does not constitute valid publication of the combination Blephilia ciliata, since Rafinesque did not definitely associate the epithet ciliata with the generic name Blephilia. Similarly, the combination Eulophus peucedanoides is not to be attributed to Bentham & Hooker (Gen. Pl. 1: 885. 1867) on the basis of their listing of "Cnidium peucedanoides, H. B. et K." under Eulophus.

33.2. A new combination, or an avowed substitute (nomen novum), published on or after 1 January 1953, for a previously and validly published name is not validly published unless its basionym (name-bringing or epithet-bringing syn-onym) or the replaced synonym (when a new name is proposed) is clearly indicated and a full and direct reference given to its author and place of valid publication with page or plate reference and date.

Ex. 3. In transferring Ectocarpus mucronatus D. A. Saunders to Giffordia, Kjeldsen & Phinney (in Madroño 22: 90. 27 Apr 1973) cited the basionym and its author but without reference to its place of valid publication. They later (in Madroño 22: 154. 2 Jul 1973) validated the binomial G. mucronata (D. A. Saunders) Kjeldsen & Phinney by giving a full and direct reference to the place of valid publication of the basionym.

Note 1. For the purpose of this Code, a page reference (for publications with a consecutive pagination) is a reference to the page or pages on which the basionym was validly published or on which the protologue is printed, but not to the pagination of the whole publication unless it is coextensive with that of the protologue.

Ex. 4. When proposing "Cylindrocladium infestans", Peerally (in Mycotaxon 40: 337. 1991) cited the basionym as "Cylindrocladiella infestans Boesw., Can. J. Bot. 60: 2288-2294. 1982". As this refers to the pagination of Boeswinkel's entire paper, not of the protologue of the intended basionym alone, the combination was not validly published by Peerally.

33.3. Errors of bibliographic citation and incorrect forms of author citation (see Art. 46) do not invalidate publication of a new combination or avowed substitute.

Ex. 5. Aronia arbutifolia var. nigra (Willd.) F. Seym. (Fl. New England: 308. 1969) was published as a new combination "Based on Mespilus arbutifolia L. var. nigra Willd., in Sp. Pl. 2: 1013. 1800." Willdenow treated these plants in the genus Pyrus, not Mespilus, and publication was in 1799, not 1800; these errors are treated as bibliographic errors of citation and do not invalidate the new combination.

Ex. 6. The combination Trichipteris kalbreyeri was proposed by Tryon (in Contr. Gray Herb. 200: 45. 1970) with a full and direct reference to Alsophila kalbreyeri C. Chr. (Index Filic.: 44. 1905). This, however, was not the place of valid publication of the basionym, which had previously been published, with the same type, by Baker (Summ. New Ferns: 9. 1892). Tryon's bibliographic error of citation does not invalidate this new combination, which is to be cited as T. kalbreyeri (Baker) R. M. Tryon.

Ex. 7. The combination Lasiobelonium corticale was proposed by Raitviir (1980) with a full and direct reference to Peziza corticalis in Fries (Syst. Mycol. 2: 96. 1822). This, however, was not the place of valid publication of the basionym, which, under the Code operating in 1980, was in Mérat (Nouv. Fl. Env. Paris, ed. 2, 1: 22. 1821), and under the present Code is in Persoon (Observ. Mycol. 1: 28. 1796). Raitviir's bibliographic error of citation does not invalidate the new combination, which is to be cited as L. corticale (Pers.) Raitv.

33.4. Mere reference to the Index kewensis, the Index of fungi, or any work other than that in which the name was validly published does not constitute a full and direct reference to the original publication of a name.

Ex. 8. Ciferri (in Mycopathol. Mycol. Appl. 7: 86-89. 1954), in proposing 142 new combinations in Meliola, omitted references to places of publication of basionyms, stating that they could be found in Petrak's lists or in the Index of fungi; none of these combinations was validly published. Similarly, Grummann (Cat. Lich. Germ.: 18. 1963) introduced a new combination in the form Lecanora campestris f. "pseudistera (Nyl.) Grumm. c.n. -- L. p. Nyl., Z 5: 521", in which "Z 5" referred to Zahlbruckner (Cat. Lich. Univ. 5: 521. 1928), who gave the full citation of the basionym, Lecanora pseudistera Nyl.; Grummann's combination was not validly published.

Note 2. The publication of a name for a taxon previously known under a misapplied name must be valid under Art. 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45. This procedure is not the same as publishing an avowed substitute (nomen novum) for a validly published but illegitimate name (Art. 58.1(b)), the type of which is necessarily the same as that of the name which it replaced (Art. 7.3).

Ex. 9. Sadleria hillebrandii Rob. (1913) was introduced as a "nom. nov." for "Sadleria pallida Hilleb. Fl. Haw. Is. 582. 1888. Not Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beech. 75. 1832." Since the requirements of Art. 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45 were satisfied (for valid publication, prior to 1935, simple reference to a previous description or diagnosis in any language was sufficient), the name is validly published. It is, however, to be considered the name of a new species, validated by Hillebrand's description of the taxon to which he misapplied the name S. pallida Hook. & Arn., and not a nomen novum as stated by Robinson; hence, Art. 7.3 does not apply.

Ex. 10. Juncus bufonius "var. occidentalis" (Hermann in U.S. Forest Serv., Techn. Rep. RM-18: 14. 1975) was published as a "nom. et stat. nov." for J. sphaerocarpus "auct. Am., non Nees". Since there is no Latin diagnosis, designation of type, or reference to any previous publication providing these requirements, the name is not validly published.

33.5. A name given to a taxon whose rank is at the same time, contrary to Art. 5, denoted by a misplaced term is not validly published. Such misplacements include forms divided into varieties, species containing genera, and genera containing families or tribes.

Ex. 11. "Sectio Orontiaceae" was not validly published by Brown (Prodr.: 337. 1810) since he misapplied the term "sectio" to taxa of a rank higher than genus.

Ex. 12. "Tribus Involuta" and "tribus Brevipedunculata" (Huth in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 20: 365, 368. 1895) are not validly published names, since Huth misapplied the term "tribus" to a taxon of a rank lower than section, within the genus Delphinium.

33.6. An exception to Art. 33.5 is made for names of the subdivisions of genera termed tribes (tribus) in Fries's Systema mycologicum, which are treated as validly published names of subdivisions of genera.

Ex. 13. Agaricus "tribus" Pholiota Fr. (Syst. Mycol. 1: 240. 1821), sanctioned in the same work, is the validly published basionym of the generic name Pholiota (Fr. : Fr.) P. Kumm. (1871) (see Art. 32 Ex. 8).

Recommendation 33A

33A.1. The full and direct reference to the place of publication of the basionym or replaced synonym should immediately follow a proposed new combination or nomen novum. It should not be provided by mere cross-reference to a bibliography at the end of the publication or to other parts of the same publication, e.g. by use of the abbreviations "loc. cit." or "op. cit."

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