International Code of Botanical Nomenclature

(Saint Louis Code), Electronic version


Article 59

59.1. In non lichen-forming ascomycetous and basidiomycetous fungi (including Ustilaginales) with mitotic asexual morphs (anamorphs) as well as a meiotic sexual morph (teleomorph), the correct name covering the holomorph (i.e., the species in all its morphs) is the earliest legitimate name typified by an element representing the teleomorph, i.e. the morph characterized by the production of asci/ascospores, basidia/basidiospores, teliospores, or other basidium-bearing organs.

Ex. 1. The name Crocicreomyces guttiferae Bat. & Peres (1964) was published for a lichen-forming fungus producing only a mitosporic asexual morph. When it was recognized that C. guttiferae is conspecific with Byssoloma aeruginescens Vezda (1974), based on an ascospore-producing type, and that Crocicreomyces Bat. & Peres (1964) is synonymous with Byssoloma Trevis. (1853), Batista & Peres's epithet was correctly recombined as B. guttiferae (Bat. & Peres) Lücking & SÚrus. (1998). As Art. 59 does not apply to lichen-forming fungi, no separate generic or specific names are available for use for the mitosporic state.

59.2. For a binary name to qualify as a name of a holomorph, not only must its type specimen be teleomorphic, but also the protologue must include a description or diagnosis of this morph (or be so phrased that the possibility of reference to the teleomorph cannot be excluded).

59.3. If these requirements are not fulfilled, the name is that of a form-taxon and is applicable only to the anamorph represented by its type, as described or referred to in the protologue. The accepted taxonomic disposition of the type of the name determines the application of the name, no matter whether the genus to which a subordinate taxon is assigned by the author(s) is holomorphic or anamorphic.

59.4. Irrespective of priority, names with a teleomorphic type take precedence over names with an anamorphic type when both types are judged to belong to the same holomorphic taxon.

59.5. The provisions of this article shall not be construed as preventing the publication and use of binary names for form-taxa when it is thought necessary or desirable to refer to anamorphs alone.

Ex. 2. Because the teleomorph of Gibberella stilboides W. L. Gordon & C. Booth (1971) is only known from strains of the anamorph Fusarium stilboides Wollenw. (1924) mating in culture, and has not been found in nature, it may be thought desirable to use the name of the anamorph for the pathogen of Coffea.

Ex. 3. Cummins (1971), in The rust fungi of cereals, grasses and bamboos, found it to be neither necessary nor desirable to introduce new names of anamorphs under Aecidium Pers. : Pers. and Uredo Pers. : Pers., for the aecial and uredinial stages of species of Puccinia Pers. : Pers. of which the telial stage (teleomorph) was known.

Note 1. When not already available, specific or infraspecific names for anamorphs may be proposed at the time of publication of the name for the holomorphic fungus or later. The epithets may, if desired, be identical, as long as they are not in homonymous combinations.

59.6. As long as there is direct and unambiguous evidence for the deliberate introduction of a new morph judged by the author(s) to be correlated with the morph typifying a purported basionym, and this evidence is strengthened by fulfilment of all requirements in Art. 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45  for valid publication of a name of a new taxon, any indication such as "comb. nov." or "nom. nov." is regarded as a formal error, and the name introduced is treated as that of a new taxon, and attributed solely to the author(s) thereof. When only the requirements for valid publication of a new combination (Art. 33 and 34) have been fulfilled, the name is accepted as such and based, in accordance with Art. 7.4, on the type of the declared or implicit basionym.

Ex. 4. The name Penicillium brefeldianum B. O. Dodge (1933), based on teleomorphic and anamorphic material, is a valid and legitimate name of a holomorph, in spite of the attribution of the species to a form-genus. It is legitimately combined in a holomorphic genus as Eupenicillium brefeldianum (B. O. Dodge) Stolk & D. B. Scott (1967). P. brefeldianum is not available for use in a restricted sense for the anamorph alone.

Ex. 5. The name Ravenelia cubensis Arthur & J. R. Johnst. (1918), based on a specimen bearing only uredinia (an anamorph), is a valid and legitimate name of an anamorph, in spite of the attribution of the species to a holomorphic genus. It is legitimately combined in a form-genus as Uredo cubensis (Arthur & J. R. Johnst.) Cummins (1956). R. cubensis is not available for use inclusive of the teleomorph.

Ex. 6. Mycosphaerella aleuritidis was published as "(Miyake) Ou comb. nov., syn. Cercospora aleuritidis Miyake" but with a Latin diagnosis of the teleomorph. The indication "comb. nov." is taken as a formal error, and M. aleuritidis S. H. Ou (1940) is accepted as a validly published new specific name for the holomorph, typified by the teleomorphic material described by Ou.

Ex. 7. Corticium microsclerotium was originally published as "(Matz) Weber, comb. nov., syn. Rhizoctonia microsclerotia Matz" with a description, only in English, of the teleomorph. Because of Art. 36, this may not be considered as the valid publication of the name of a new species, and so C. microsclerotium (Matz) G. F. Weber (1939) must be considered a validly published and legitimate new combination based on the specimen of the anamorph that typifies its basionym. C. microsclerotium G. F. Weber (1951), published with a Latin description and a teleomorphic type, is an illegitimate later homonym.

Ex. 8. Hypomyces chrysospermus Tul. (1860), presented as the name of a holomorph without the indication "comb. nov." but with explicit reference to Mucor chrysospermus (Bull.) Bull. and Sepedonium chrysospermum (Bull.) Fr., which are names of its anamorph, is not to be considered as a new combination but as the name of a newly described species, with a teleomorphic type.

Recommendation 59A

59A.1. When a new morph of a fungus is described, it should be published either as a new taxon (e.g., gen. nov., sp. nov., var. nov.) the name of which has a teleomorphic type, or as a new anamorph (anam. nov.) the name of which has an anamorphic type.

59A.2. When in naming a new morph of a fungus the epithet of the name of a different, earlier described morph of the same fungus is used, the new name should be designated as the name of a new taxon or anamorph, as the case may be, but not as a new combination based on the earlier name.

59A.3. Authors should avoid the publication and use of binary names for anamorphs when the teleomorphic connection is firmly established and there is no practical need for separate names (as e.g. in rust fungi and members of the Trichocomaceae).

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