[ticolichen-Logo] provisional
determination keys
for the Graphidales
of Costa Rica
[bgbm-Logo] [graphidales-Logo] by H. Sipman
BGBM
last updated:
18 August 2008
other webkeys
other Zschackia issues
intro - genera - Acanthothecis - Anomomorpha - Aulacographa - Carbacanthographis - Diorygma - Dyplolabia - Fissurina - Glyphis - Graphis - Hemithecium - Leiorreuma - Phaeographis - Phaeographopsis - Platygramme - Platythecium - Sarcographa - Thalloloma - Thecaria -
corticolous Thelotremataceae

The species of Fissurina in Costa Rica

NOTE: This genus lacks a modern treatment and the delimitation of most species is unclear, also those included in this key. Names in "" are unpublished or need to be checked with original material.

1A Ascocarps raised above the thallus, with swollen margins - - - 2
1B Ascocarps immersed in the thallus, with usually thin, sometimes raised margins - - - 5

2A Ascocarp margins without algal layer; lowland species - - - 3
2B Ascocarp margin with algal layer; montane species - - - 4

3A Ascocarp margins pale brown, closed; disc not exposed - - - Fissurina rufula
3B Ascocarp margins pink, somewhat gaping; disc sometimes exposed - - - Fissurina carneoviridis

4A Ascospores 3-septate - - - Fissurina triticea
4B Ascospores muriform - - - Fissurina triphora

5A Lirellae densely branched and stellate, in more or less stromatoid patches - - - 6
5B Lirellae not stromatoid, usually simple and elongate, regularly scattered - - - 8

6A Ascospores 4-celled - - - Fissurina "radiata"
6B Ascospores (sub)muriform - - - 7

7A Ascospores 20-30 mu long - - - Fissurina "egena"
7B Ascospores 10-12 mu long - - - Fissurina "egenuloides"

8A Lirellae with erect, almost vertical margins leaving the disc exposed (when hymenium present) - - - 9
8B Lirellae with appressed margins usually covering most of the disc - - - 10

9A Ascocarp margins with conspicuously white inner side; ascospores oblong, 18-25 x 7-10 mu - - - Fissurina "chroodiscoides"
9B Ascocarp margins brownish inside; ascospores ovoid, ca. 18-25 x 10-12 mu - - - Fissurina nitidescens?

10A Ascospores 4-celled, rarely 6-celled - - - 11
10B Ascospores muriform - - - 14

11A Ascospores 6-celled, ca. 50 mu long - - - Fissurina "megaspora"
11B Ascospores 4-celled, ca. 20-30 mu long - - - 12

12A Ascocarp margin pale brown, with thin brown or carbonized layer - - - Fissurina comparilis
12B Ascocarp margin concolorous with thallus - - - 13

13A No lichen substances, thallus K- - - - Fissurina dumastii
13B Stictic acid present, thallus K+ orange - - - Fissurina dumastoides

14A Ascocarp margins narrow and not covering the disc completely - - - Fissurina incrustans
14B Ascocarp margins wider and usually completely covering the disc - - - 15

15A Ascocarp margins thin, with or without inner carbonized layer, paler than the thallus or brownish - - - 16
15B Ascocarp margins thick, concolorous with the thallus but sometimes with a yellowish or reddish rim - - - 18

16A Ascocarp margins with thin carbonized inner layer, pale brown outside - - - Fissurina comparimuralis
16B Ascocarp margins uncarbonized, yellowish - - - 17

17A Ascospores I+ bluish - - - Fissurina columbina
17B Ascospores I- - - - Fissurina cingalina

18A Ascospores over 100 mu long - - - Fissurina "gomezii"
18B Ascospores under 50 mu long - - - 19

19A Ascospores ca. 10 x 5 celled - - - Fissurina rubiginosa
19B Ascospores ca. 4 x 2 celled - - - Fissurina marginata


Fissurina carneoviridis (Wirth & Hale) (Graphina carneoviridis Wirth & Hale) - Ascocarps elongate, immersed; margins with swollen, pink-orange rims closed above the disc; hymenium 90 mu, clear; ascospores 8/ascus, muriform, I+ dark blue, ca. 16 x 8-10 mu, 4-6 x 2-3 celled, with thick outer wall swelling in K. Specimen studied: Sipman 47888.
[F. carneoviridis]
Costa Rica (Sipman 47888); picture length = 7 mm.

Fissurina "chroodiscoides" - Ascocarps round to elongate, immersed; margins thin and almost vertical, concolorous with thallus outside, conspicuously white inside, leaving the pale grey-brown disc exposed, commonly without hymenium and showing a white bottom; hymenium ca. 80-100 mu, clear; ascospores 8/ascus, muriform, I- or I+ pale violet, ca. 18-26 x 7-8 mu, 4-8 x 2-3 celled. Specimens studied: Sipman 50981A, 52038.
[F. [F.
Costa Rica (Sipman 50981A); picture length = 7 mm. Costa Rica (Sipman 50981A); picture length = 7 mm.
[F. [F.
Costa Rica (Sipman 52038); picture length = 7 mm. Old, abortive ascocarps. Costa Rica (Sipman 52043); picture length = 7 mm. Deviating specimen.

Fissurina cingalina (Nyl.) Staiger - Ascocarps elongate, immersed; margins thin, concolorous with thallus or slightly paler, closed above the disc; hymenium 90-100 mu, clear; ascospores 8/ascus, muriform, I-, 22-30 x 12-18 mu, 8-10 x 4 celled. Specimens studied: Sipman 51974, 48032G.
[F. cingalina] [F. cingalina]
Costa Rica (Sipman 48032b); picture length = 7 mm. Costa Rica (Sipman 51987a); picture length = 7 mm.

Fissurina columbina (Tuck.) Staiger - Ascocarps elongate, immersed; margins thin, concolourous with thallus or slightly paler, closed above the disc; hymenium 80-100 mu, clear; ascospores 8/ascus, muriform, I+ blue, 14-30 x 7-20 mu,4-8 x 2-4 celled. Specimens studied: Sipman 48020D, 51966.
[F. columbina] [F. columbina]
Costa Rica (Sipman 48020D); picture length = 7 mm. Costa Rica (Sipman 51966); picture length = 7 mm.

Fissurina comparilis (Nyl.) Nyl. - Ascocarps elongate, immersed; margins thin, dark-brownish, closed above the disc; hymenium ca. 80 mu, clear; ascospores 8/ascus, 4-celled, I+ blue, 18-20(-30) x 9-10(-15) mu. Specimens studied: Sipman 51009B, 51042A; with information from Staiger (2002).
[F. comparilis] [F. comparilis]
Costa Rica (Sipman 51045F); picture length = 7 mm. Costa Rica (Sipman 51042A); picture length = 7 mm.
[F. comparilis] [F. comparilis]
Costa Rica (Sipman 51045A); picture length = 7 mm. Costa Rica (Sipman 51045A); picture length = 7 mm.

Fissurina comparimuralis Staiger - Ascocarps elongate, immersed; margins thin, dark-brownish, closed above the disc; hymenium ca. 80 mu, clear; ascospores 8/ascus, muriform, I+ dark blue, 20-27 x 12 mu, 4 x 2 celled. Specimen studied: Sipman 51039G.
[F. comparimuralis]
El Salvador (Sipman 51039G); picture length = 7 mm.

Fissurina dumastii Fe (Graphis dumastii (Fe) Sprengel) - Ascocarps elongate, immersed; margins thin, dark-brownish, closed above the disc; hymenium 60-90(-120) mu, clear; ascospores 8/ascus, 4-celled, I- or + bluish, 12-16(-25) x 5-8(-15) mu. Specimens studied: Sipman 48050D, 48244, 51869.
[F. dumastii] [F. dumastii]
Costa Rica (Sipman 48050D); picture length = 7 mm. Costa Rica (Sipman 51939); picture length = 7 mm. Abraded specimen.
[F. dumastii] [F. dumastii]
Costa Rica (Sipman 48244); picture length = 7 mm. Costa Rica (Sipman 51784); picture length = 7 mm.

Fissurina dumastoides (Fink) Staiger (Graphis dumastoides Fink) - Ascocarps elongate, immersed; margins thin, dark-brownish, closed above the disc; hymenium 60-90(-120) mu, clear; ascospores 8/ascus, 4-celled, I- or + bluish, ca. 12-16 x 5-8 mu. Major substance: stictic acid. Specimen studied: Sipman 12126. NOTE: As F. dumastii, with stictic acid (thallus K+ yellow to orange); presence in CR not yet confirmed by TLC.
[F. dumastoides]
(in prep.)

Fissurina "egena" (Nyl.) Nyl. - Ascocarps, immersed, much branched and twisted, stromatoid; margins thin, dark-brownish, closed above the disc; hymenium ca. 75-100 mu, clear; ascospores 8/ascus, muriform, I+ blue, 20-30 x 12-20 mu, ca. 6 x 3 celled. Specimens with spores studied: Sipman 52003, 51772, 48032c. NOTE: CR material is often without hymenium and spores; Staiger (2002) does not mention stromatoid ascocarps and the name may be misapplied here.
[F. egena] [F. egena]
Costa Rica (Sipman 48034D); picture length = 7 mm. Costa Rica (Sipman 51045C); picture length = 7 mm.
[F. egena] [F. egena]
Costa Rica (Sipman 42003); picture length = 7 mm. Costa Rica (Sipman 51973); picture length = 7 mm.

Fissurina "egenuloides" (or Platythecium allosporellum?) - Ascocarps immersed, stellately branched; margins thin, concolorous with thallus, slightly open above the disc; hymenium ca. 70 mu, clear; ascospores 8/ascus, submuriform, I+ bluish, 10-12 x 5-7 mu, ca. 4 x 1-2 celled. Specimen studied: Sipman 12079.
[F.
Costa Rica (Sipman 12079); picture length = 7 mm.

Fissurina "gomezii" - Ascocarps rounded-stellate or slightly elongate, immersed; margins thick, concolorous with thallus, covering most of the disc; hymenium ca. 200 mu, clear; ascospores 2/ascus, muriform, I+ pale violet, ca. 160 x 50 mu. Specimen studied: Sipman 53253. NOTE: This material seems close to Chroodiscus "perdissutus", which deviates by its more gaping labiae and the single spores.
[F. gomezii]
Costa Rica (Sipman 53253); picture length = 7 mm.

Fissurina incrustans Fe (Graphina incrustans (Fe) Mll. Arg.) - Ascocarps elongate, immersed; margins thin, concolorous with thallus, short and leaving much of the disc uncovered; hymenium ca. 80 mu, clear; ascospores 8/ascus, muriform, I+ pale blue, ca. 16 x 8 mu, 6 x 3 celled. Specimen studied: Sipman 51696.
[F. incrustans]
Costa Rica (Sipman 51696); picture length = 7 mm.

Fissurina marginata Staiger - Ascocarps elongate, immersed; margins rather thick, concolorous with thallus but with yellowish rim, covering the disc; hymenium ca. 100 mu, clear; ascospores 8/ascus, muriform, I+ pale blue, ca. 22-25 x 10-15 mu, 4 x 2 celled. Specimen studied: Sipman 51773. NOTE: Identification uncertain.
[F. marginata]
Costa Rica (Sipman 51773); picture length = 7 mm.

Fissurina "megaspora" - Ascocarps short-elongate, sessile; margins thick, concolorous with thallus, covering the disc; hymenium ? mu, clear; ascospores 8/ascus, transversely septate, I+ blue, ca. 50 x 20 mu, 6-celled. Specimen studied: Sipman 51918.
[F. megaspora]
Costa Rica (Sipman 51918); picture length = 7 mm.

Fissurina nitidescens (Nyl.) Nyl. - Ascocarps elongate, immersed; margins slightly thickened and raised, concolorous with thallus with brownish rim, leaving the pale grey disc visible; hymenium ca. 75 mu, fine-inspersed; ascospores 8/ascus, muriform, I+ pale violet, ca. 18 x 10 mu, ca. 6 x 3 celled. Specimen studied: Sipman 51088B. NOTE: Identification uncertain.
[F. nitidescens]
El Salvador (Sipman 51088B); picture length = 7 mm.

Fissurina "radiata" - Ascocarps, immersed, much branched and twisted, stromatoid; margins thin, dark-brownish, closed above the disc; hymenium ca. 75-100? mu, clear; ascospores 8/ascus, muriform, I+ blue?, ca. 15 x 6 mu, 4 celled. Specimen studied: Aptroot 60562 (37b). NOTE: Identification uncertain while no authentic specimen was available for comparison.
[F.
(in prep.)

Fissurina rubiginosa (Fe) Staiger - Ascocarps elongate, immersed; margins slightly thickened and almost flat, concolorous with thallus with yellowish rim, covering the disc; hymenium ca. 100 mu, clear; ascospores 8/ascus, muriform, I- (pale blue), ca. 30 x 16 mu, ca. 8-10 x 4-5 celled. Specimen studied: Sipman 52054.
[F. rubiginosa]
Costa Rica (Sipman 52054); picture length = 7 mm.

Fissurina rufula (Mont.) Staiger - Ascocarps elongate, immersed; margins much swollen, with internally orange crystals, and raised above the thallus, pale brownish, more or less with white powdery cover, closed above the disc; hymenium 100-120 mu, clear; ascospores 8/ascus, 4-celled, I- or + pale blue, 17-18 x 7-10 mu, outer locules the largest. Specimen studied: Sipman 51101, 51615.
[F. rufula] [F. rufula]
Costa Rica (Sipman 51101); picture length = 7 mm. Costa Rica (Sipman 51615); picture length = 7 mm.

"Fissurina" triphora (Nyl.) ined. (Graphina triphora (Nyl.) Mll. Arg.) - Ascocarps short-elongate, sessile, 0.6-1.0 mm wide; margins thick, concolorous with thallus, with thin carbonized central layer and pale inner apical thickening covering the disc; hymenium ca. 250-350 mu, clear (paraphyses 1 mu thick, with thin, indistinct walls); ascospores 1-3/ascus, muriform, I+ blue, ca. 100-125 x 25-35 mu, 20-30 x 5-10 celled, with thick outer wall. Specimen studied: Holst 99-0161a.
[F. triphora]
El Salvador (Holst 99-0161a); picture length = 7 mm.

Fissurina cf. triticea (Nyl.) Staiger (Graphis triticea Nyl.) (Staiger 2002) - Ascocarps elongate, immersed to slightly raised; margins swollen and raised above the thallus, with whitish, more or less swollen rim, closed above the disc or slightly opn and showing the pale grey-brown disc; hymenium 100-120 mu, clear; ascospores 8/ascus, 4-celled, I+ pale blue, 20-25 x15-16 mu, outer locules the largest, with very thick outer wall and small rounded locules. Specimen studied: Sipman 1238, 48233.
[F. triticea] [F. triticea]
Costa Rica (Ingberg 1238); picture length = 7 mm. Costa Rica (Sipman 48233); picture length = 7 mm.