[BGBM-Logo] key for the lichen genus Cladonia
in SE Brazil
[BGBM-Foto klein]

 

Provisional illustrated key to the lichen genus Cladonia (incl. Carassea) in SW Brazil
by H. Sipman & T. Ahti, 1 Sept. 2012, 24 May 2013

 

NOTES
    The diagnostic characters are often visible only on fully developed, not over-aged podetia. The user of the key is recommended to use samples with several podetia and if possible hymenial discs, taking care to avoid mixtures.
    The key is compiled from information in the Flora Neotropica Monograph by Ahti (2000), with additions from Stenroos et al. (2002) and Gumboski & Eliasaro (2011), and observations on specimens in the herbarium in Berlin-Dahlem [B]. The geographical coverage includes nearby states from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul. Knowledge of the genus in this area is still very incomplete and the key is intended to facilitate further exploration.
    This is the first, test version of this key. Comments and corrections are very welcome. The series of couplets is interrupted to provide space for additions.

REFERENCES
Ahti, T. 2000: Cladoniaceae. Flora Neotropica vol. 78. Organization for Flora Neotropica and New York Botanical Garden, Bronx. 362 pp.
Gumboski, E. L./ S. Eliasaro 2011: Cladonia litoralis (Cladoniaceae), a new species from Southern Brazil. - The Bryologist 114(4): 665-667.
Stenroos, S., Hyvönen, J., Myllys, L., Thell, A. & Ahti, T. 2002: Phylogeny of the genus Cladonia s.lat. (Cladoniaceae, Ascomycetes) inferred from molecular, morphological, and chemical data. Cladistics 18: 237-278.

GLOSSARY
axil: podetium surface in the fold between two branches; it may be perforate with an opening to the central canal of the podetium.
central cylinder: inner, supportive tissue of a podetium, often cartilaginous, see "stereome".
funnel: part of podetium around an open axil, often subterminal, which is widened and has a funnel-like shape; externally resembling a scyphus but inside without bottom.
granule: vegetative propagule consisting of a roundish mass of algae and fungal hyphae, with smooth outer side, sized around 100 mu in diam.
microsquamule: small, squamule-like structure developing from aggregated or swollen granules, often roundish with lacerate margins, and easily detached, usually under 0.2 mm long, may develop into squamule finally.
phyllidium (plural: phyllidia): easily detached (part of) squamule, of reduced size, about 0.2-0.5 mm long.
podetium (plural: podetia): cylindrical thallus part that supports the hymenial discs; usually cylindrical with central canal which is surrounded by a central cylinder of supportive tissue.
scyphus (plural: scyphi): apical widening of podetia, more or less cup-shaped, with the inner side closed by a thallus layer.
soredium (plural: soredia): vegetative propagule consisting of a roundish mass of algae and fungal hyphae, with felty outer side, sized about 20-50 mu in diam.
squamule: dorsiventral, scale-like thallus part that develops from the substrate and may bear a podetium; it may also develop secundarily from a podetium, and is usually over 0.5 mm long, sometimes over 1 cm.
stereome: central cylinder composed of conglutinated hyphae, of cartilaginous consistence.

 


1a Thallus squamules absent or very scarce, difficult to find; specimen dominated by podetia which are strongly branched, cushion-forming, without scyphi but occasionally with funnels - - - 2
1b Thallus squamules present and common, easily visible but sometimes tiny, on the substrate and/or on the podetia, abundant and dominating or more scattered; podetia common or rare, more or less branched, sometimes with scyphi or funnels - - - 39

2a (1) Podetium surface without cortex, slightly felty (use strong lens!) (group Cladina, incl. Cladonia signata) - - - 3
2b Podetium surface with cortex, smooth, at least over the clusters of algal cells (use strong lens!) (groups Unciales and Perviae pr. p.) - - - 9

3a (2) Podetia greenish to yellowish grey (usnic acid present, KC+ yellow) - - - 4
3b Podetia whitish to dark grey (usnic acid absent, KC-) - - - 6

4a (3) Main podetium stems distinct, particularly in the lower half of the cushions; podetium tips often slightly combed, branching dichotomously - - - C. arbuscula ssp. boliviana
4b No main podetium stems visible in the cushions; podetium tips not combed, but with branchlets pointing in all directions, branching dichotomously or trichotomously - - - 5

5a (4) Terminal branchlets branching often trichotomously; P- (no fumarprotocetraric acid); widespread and common - - - C. confusa
5b Terminal branchlets branching only dichotomously; P+ (fumarprotocetraric acid); known only from Serra do Ibitipoca - - - C. kriegeri

6a (3) Main podetium stems distinct, particularly in the lower half of the cushions; podetium tips often slightly combed - - - 7
6b No main podetium stems visible in the cushions; podetium tips not combed, but with branchlets pointing in all directions - - - C. signata

7a (6) Podetia near the tips with thick and compact outer felt layer, with flat surface without protruding algal cell clusters - - - C. kalbii
7b Podetia near the tips with thin and arachnoid outer felt layer, with rugulose surface caused by protruding algal cell clusters - - - 8

8a (7) Apical branchlets somewhat combed and pointing in one direction; upper face of cushions rather flat - - - C. arcuata
8b Apical branchlets not combed and pointing in all directions; upper face of cushions with semiglobose podetium tips - - - C. dendroides

9a (2) Podetia over c. 2 mm thick near the base, also when sterile, cylindrical and not much inflated at axils - - - 10
9b Podetia usually up to 1 mm thick near the base, rarely thicker in fertile podetia bearing hymenial discs, sometimes with inflated axils (funnels) and there much thicker - - - 16

10a (9) Podetia greenish to yellowish grey (with usnic acid) - - - 11
10b Podetia whitish to brownish grey, without yellowish tinge, (no usnic acid) - - - 12

11a (10) Inner surface of podetia tomentose, hyphae of central cylinder not conglutinated; podetia up to ca. 4 mm wide, remaining cylindrical; no steroid crystals in herbarium specimens (usnic, fumarprotocetraric acids) - - - C. divaricata
11b Inner surface of podetia cribrose, hyphae of central cylinder weakly conglutinated (stereome-forming); podetia up to 10 mm wide, becoming irregular; steroid crystals appearing in herbarium specimens (usnic with stictic or fumarprotocetraric acids) - - - C. subreticulata

12a (10) Podetia K+ yellow (thamnolic acid) - - - 13
12b Podetia K- or slightly discoloured (no thamnolic acid) - - - 15

13a (12) Podetia with obtuse tips soon over 2 mm wide, at base up to 5 mm; endemic to Serra do Espinhaço (thamnolic acid) - - - C. bahiana
13b Podetia with subulate tips, reaching 2 mm width only near the base - - - 14

14a (13) Podetium surface matt (thamnolic acid) - - - C. turgidior
14b Podetium surface glossy (thamnolic with or without barbatic acid) - - - C. obscurata

15a (12) Central cylinder not conglutinated (stereome absent); P+ red; - - - C. albofuscescens
15b Central cylinder conglutinated (stereome present; P-; endemic to Serra da Piedade (didymic acid agg., often with barbatic acid) - - - C. piedadensis

16a (9) Podetia greenish to yellowish grey (with usnic acid) - - - 17
16b Podetia whitish to brownish grey, without yellowish tinge, (no usnic acid) - - - 19

17a (16) Podetia pale yellowish to greenish grey; steroid crystals present in herbarium specimens; with stictic acid (K+ yellow to orange) - - - 18
17b Podetia pale brownish grey with weak yellow tinge; with usnic and fumarprotocetraric acids (K-), once with usnic and norstictic acid (K+ yellow to red) - - - C. minarum

18a (17) Podetia 0.2-0.3 mm thick, at base up to 0.5 mm; low cushions up to 1 cm tall (usnic, stictic acids) - - - C. stenroosiae
18b Podetia c. 0.5 mm thick, at base up to 1 mm; cushions 3-7 cm tall (usnic, stictic acids) - - - C. substellata

19a (16) Podetia K+ yellow - - - 20
19b Podetia K- - - - 27

20a (19) Podetia whitish with contrasting black necrotic base (black stereome at base; thamnolic acid, sometimes with barbatic acid) - - - C. polytypa
20b Podetia not blackening at base, stereome remaining grey - - - 21

21a (20) Podetia without parellel-running main stems visible through much if the cushion; podetium surface glossy, smooth; widespread (atranorin) - - - Carassea connexa
21b Podetia with parellel-running main stems visible through much of the cushion; podetium surface matt - - - 22

22a (21) Podetia main stems 0.4-0.7(-1) mu thick (thamnolic or squamatic acid) - - - C. consimilis
22b Podetia main stems over 1 mm thick - - - 23

23a (22, 27) Central cylinder poorly conglutinated, inner side of podetia felty; known from Caraça only (thamnolic acid) - - - C. fleigiae
23b Central cylinder well conglutinated, inner side of podetia smooth - - - 24

24a (23) Axils in upper part of podetia open and distinctly inflated and funnel-shaped - - - 25
24b Axils in upper part of podetia open but not inflated, branches cylindrical - - - 26

25a (24) Podetium cortex 15-25 mu thick; funnels short, to 1 mm and well-delimited, with cylindrical extensions on the margins (barbatic, rarely thamnolic acid) - - - C. salzmannii
25b Podetium cortex 5-12 mu thick; funnels longer, 2-3 mm, gradually attenuating, the podetia hardly extended above the upper funnels (thamnolic acid) - - - C. carassensis

26a (24) Main stems remaining smooth (thamnolic or barbatic acid) - - - C. crispatula
26b Main stems verruculose-rugulose (thamnolic acid) - - - C. rugicaulis

27a (19) Podetia around 1 mm thick, fertile ones up to 2 mm - - - 23
27b Podetia up to 0.7 mm thick - - - 28

28a (27) Podetia glossy, 0.3-0.7 mm thick; known only from Serra do Ibitipoca (fumarprotocetraric acid) - - - C. ibitipocae
28b Podetia matt - - - 29

29a (28) Podetia 0.2-0.4 mm thick; Serra do Espinhaço and Serra dos Orgãos (fumarprotocetraric acid, usually with usnic acid) - - - C. minarum
29b Podetia 0.4-0.7 mm thick, fertile podetia thicker (thamnolic or squamatic acid) - - - C. consimilis

 

39a (1) Mature specimens dominated by primary thallus squamules growing directly from the substrate; podetia also in adult stage (with hymenial discs) small and inconspicuous, up to ca. 1(-2) cm long, scarcely longer than the thallus squamules and often rare - - - 40
39b Mature specimens dominated by podetia, which exceed the squamules in length many times - - - 71

40a (30) Squamules (party) sorediate to granular at margin and on lower side - - - 41
40b Squamules not sorediate or granular, sometimes warty - - - 47

41a (40) Red pycnidia or hymenial discs usually present; squamules thick; P- - - - 42
41b Pycnidia and hymenial discs brown or absent; squamules thin; P+ red (fumarprotocetraric acid) - - - 44

42a (41) Squamules few mm long - - - 43
42b Squamules 15-25 mm long (obtusatic and barbatic acids) - - - C. meridionalis

43a (42) Thallus K-, forming well delimited squamulose patches (didymic, barbatic or sekikaic acid agg.) - - - C. ahtii
43b Thallus K+ yellow, thinning out towards the margin to scattered, small squamules (thamnolic acid) - - - C. crustacea

44a (41) Thallus bluish; on rock - - - C. farinophylla
44b Thallus greenish grey; on soil or organic substrate - - - 45

45a (44) Soredia in delimited, apical patches on upturned squamules; podetia usually present - - - 46
45b Soredia in indistinctly delimited patches on underside of upturned lobes; podetia rare any tiny - - - C. nana

46a (45) Podetia solid, with closed axils, without soredia and generally fertile
46b Podetia with central canal, with open axils, with delimited sorediate in delimited patches on the underside of small squamules, usually sterile - - - C. cf. chondrotypa

47a (40) Red hymenial discs, pycnidia and/or red medulla present, rarely black pycnidia - - - 48
47b No red pigment, hymenial discs when present brown (some species are difficult to identify without podetia or chemical tlc data) - - - 57

48a (47) Medulla of squamules completely or in part red - - - 49
48b Medulla of squamules completely without red pigment, white or brownish - - - 51

49a (48) Red pigment only at lobe tips, rest of medulla whitish (barbatic or sekikaic acid) - - - C. anaemica
49b Medulla completely red - - - 50

50a (49) Squamules 4-7 mm long, sparsely lobed, forming loose cushions (barbatic, didymic or other (no usnic) acids) - - - C. miniata
50b Squamules 10-40 mm long, much divided and laciniate, forming dense cushions (usnic acid) - - - C. salmonea

51a (48) Squamules small, usually around 1 mm long - - - 52
51b Squamules larger, usually over 2 mm long and wide - - - 53

52a (51) Podetia 0.5-2 mm long, smooth (barbatic and didymic acids) - - - C. curta
52b Podetia 2-6 mm long, granulose-sorediate (sekikaic acid agg.) - - - C. pumila

53a (51) Squamules roundish, slightly concave, 1-4 mm in diam. - - - 54
53b Squamules elongate and laciniate, over 2 mm long, flat, not pruinose; K- (no thamnolic acid) - - - 55

54a (53) Squamules 1-2 mm in diam., with pruinose margin; pycnidia allways black; K+ yellow (thamnolic and didymic acids) - - - C. metaminiata
54b Squamules 2-4 mm in diam., not pruinose; pycnidia red; K- (barbatic, didymic or other (no usnic) acids) (rare form lacking red pigment in thallus) - - - C. miniata

55a (53) Squamules 5-12 mm long; NE Brazil (usnic and didymic acids) - - - C. subminiata
55b Squamules shorter - - - 56

56a (55) Squamules narrowly laciniate, 0.8-1.5 mm wide (didymic, barbatic or sekikaic acid agg.) - - - C. secundana
56b Squamules crenate and imbricate, 1-3 mm wide (didymic acid) - - - C. hypomelaena

57a (47) Squamules with white marginal rhizines, usually over 10 mm long, spreading; podetia frequent, subulate, with deciduous, convex, elongate, down-pointing phyllidia (fumarprotocetraric acid) - - - C. ceratophylla
57b Squamules without rhizines; podetia not subulate with isidioid squamules - - - 58

58a (57) Podetia often present, with rounded, convex phyllidia, which fall off easily and become scarce in herbarium specimens (fumarprotocetraric or stictic acid) - - - C. pityrophylla
58b Podetia more or less rare, without phyllidia - - - 59

59a (58) Squamules large, 5-35 mm long - - - 60
59b Squamules medium-sized, 3-10 mm long - - - 61

60a (59) Thallus K+ yellow to orange (atranorin and stictic acid agg.) - - - C. latiloba
60b Thallus K- (fumarprotocetraric acid) - - - C. megaphylla

61a (59) (Thallus C+ green (squamatic and baeomycesic acid and strepsilin) - - - C. strepsilis
61b Thallus C- - - - 62

62a (61) Thallus K+ yellow to orange - - - 63
62b Thallus K- - - - 64

63a (62) Norstictic acid alone present; on acidic soil in warm regions - - - C. subcariosa
63b Norstictic acid with atranorin; on calcareous soil in cool regions; RS only - - - C. symphycarpia

64a (62) Thallus yellowish (usnic and barbatic acids, P-) - - - C. robbinsii
64b Thallus greenish (fumarprotocetraric acid, P+ red) - - - 65

65a (64) Thallus squamules with small, deciduous marginal lobes (phyllidia); podetia reduced to short stalks below the hymenial discs, 1-5 mm long - - - C. caespiticia
65b Thallus without phyllidia; podetia to 15 mm long - - - 66

66a (65) Podetia decorticated except near the base, 4-8 mm long, usually simple - - - C. litoralis
66b Podetia corticate over its full length, or with small scattered interruptions - - - 67

67a (66) Podetia clavate, somewhat granular, 0.5-7(-13) mm long, with central canal - - - C. testaceopallens
67b Podetia dichotomously branched to subcorymbose, without central canal - - - C. solida

 

71a (39) Podetia forming scyphi (cup- or disk-like, apical extensions with closed, corticate upper/inner side), which may occur in tiers on top of eachother, unbranched or accidentally branched, except at the top - - - 72
71b Podetia not forming scyphi, branched or not, sometimes with scyphi-like funnels, which open into the central cavity of the podetia - - - 111

72a (71) Scyphi in tiers, rather flat, discoid, and proliferating from the center, not sorediate; all species with fumarprotocetraric acid - - - 73
72b Scyphi usually single, cup-like, not proliferating or proliferating from the scyphi margin, often granular or sorediate; chemistry various - - - 84

73a (72) Scyphi lacerate, with subcylindrical lobes longer than 1/2 of scyphal disc radius - - - 74
73b Scyphi dentate or, if lacerate, most lobes shorter than 1/2 of scyphal disc radius - - - 81

74a (73) Older scyphi mostly penicillate (with black tufts of squarrose rhizoids on scyphi lobe tips); robust, 8-15 cm tall - - - C. penicillata
74b Not or very sparsely penicillate - - - 75

75a (74) Necrotic stereome at base of podetia distinctly blackening. - - - 76
75b Necrotic stereome at base of podetia not distinctly blackening but turning slightly yellow or brown. - - - 77

76a (75) Podetia brown, large, 10-25 cm tall, with spreading to recurved, (1.5-)3.5-4(-6) cm wide scyphi - - - C. imperialis
76b Podetia gray, smaller, 4-6 cm tall, with incurved, 0.5-1.2 cm wide scyphi. - - - C. flagellaris

77a (75) Scyphi few, almost totally divided into terete, filiform, branched lobes. - - - C. fissidens
77b Scyphi 6-14 per podetium, not so deeply divided, with partly flattened laciniae - - - 78

78a (77) Upper scyphi strongly incurved; central cavity with longitudinal cartilaginous strands - - - C. crinita
78b Scyphi flat or incurved; central cavity without longitudinal strands. - - - 79

79a (78) Scyphi 7-9, 1-1.8 cm wide, only 1/5 to 1/6 of scyphal plate undivided. - - - C. verticillaris
79b Scyphi 5-14, 0.3-0.9 cm wide, 1/2 to 1/4 of scyphal plate undivided. - - - 80

80a (79) Greenish gray; scyphi often more than 6; cortex hardly pruinose near tips; older scyphi provided with flat teeth; atranorin absent - - - C. calycanthoides
80b Whitish gray; scyphi up to 5-6, cortex pruinose near tips; older scyphi with terete teeth at least 5 mm long; atranorin occasionally present (Bahía) - - - C. dissecta

81a (73) Scyphal plates broad, 8-12 mm diam., 2/3 to 3/4 of plate undivided, not perforated; central cavity with longitudinal strands - - - C. perfilata
81b Scyphal plates smaller, 2-7(-10) mm diam., deeply or shallowly divided, often perforated; central cavity without longitudinal strands. - - - 82

82a (81) Upper surface of scyphi with a whirl of perforations which expand and become confluent, making the surface clathrate; marginal teeth broad; cortex matt and felty; not melanotic at base - - - C. clathrata
82b Scyphi not clathrate though sometimes perforate; marginal teeth narrower; cortex not felty; base usually melanotic. - - - 83

83a (82) Cortex almost totally transformed into phyllidia so that bare medulla is exposed over most of surface; most scyphi 2-4 mm wide - - - C. andesita
83b Cortex almost continuous, rather smooth and persistent; scyphi 3-7 mm wide, older ones somewhat perforate but not lacerate; clearly melanotic - - - C. rappii

84a (72) Scyphi wineglass-shaped, more than 3 times wider than the stalk-like remaining part of the podetium - - - 85
84b Scyphi narrow, less than 3 times as wide as the stalk, sometimes reduced to knobs (all species with fumarprotocetraric acid) - - - 91

85a (84) Podetia yellowish to bright green, with usnic acid; hymenial discs red - - - 86
85b Podetia greenish grey, without usnic acid; hymenial discs usually brown - - - 87

86a (85) Scyphi surface with scales and corticate granules; at high elevation (usnic acid, zeorin) - - - C. coccifera
86b Scyphi surface with corticate granules and soredia; in tropical lowland (usnic and thamnolic or didymic or sekikaic acid agg.) - - - C. corallifera

87a (85) Scyphi surface largely corticate, higher up with scales and corticate granules (fumarprotocetraric acid) - - - C. pyxidata
87b Scyphi surface corticate or not, with granules and/or soredia - - - 88

88a (87) Podetia K+ yellow - - - 89
88b Podetia K- or K+ reddish - - - 90

89a (88) Podetia K+ yellow (thamnolic acid); hymenial discs red; hypothallus under the podetia orange; podetia surface granular - - - C. hypoxanthoides
89b Podetia K+ pale yellow (atranorin and fumarprotocetraric acid); hymenial discs brown; hypothallus under the podetia whitish; podetia surface smooth-corticate on stalk, finely sorediate on cup - - - C. humilis

90a (88) Complete podetium surface dissolving in soredia and tiny scales, finally denudated and whitish (fumarprotocetraric acid) - - - C. subsquamosa
90b Podetium surface largely granular, sorediate on the cups, largely remaining corticate and dark- to brownish green - - - C. merochlorophaea

91a (84) All podetia largely corticate, apically somewhat warted, granular or sorediate - - - 92
91b Most podetia largely decorticated, most of the surface more or less densely covered by soredia, granules or microsquamules - - - 94

92a (91) Apically with tuberculose, 1-2 mm wide soralia at podetium tips or under scyphi (psoromic acid) - - - C. dactylota
92b No tuberculose soralia - - - 93

93a (92) Full-grown podetia with distinct, rather flat cups with several stalked hymenial discs on their margin - - - C. ramulosa
93b Full-grown podetia with narrow, knob-like scyphi bearing usually one stalked hymenial disc - - - C. ochracea

94a (91) Podetia beset with small, elongate, reflexed phyllidia, completely decorticated - - - C. furfuracea
94b Podetia more or less densely beset with soredia, granules and/or microsquamules, decorticated with usually distinct corticate areas at the base and below the scyphi - - - 95

95a (94) Podetium surface rough, partially decorticated, with scattered granules which soon grow out into c. 0.2 mm wide, swollen microsquamules or warts; podetia often flexuose - - - C. itatiaiae
95b Podetium surface rather smooth, often mostly decorticated, with dense soredia or granules, which usually coalesce and grow out into flat microsquamules; podetia usually straight - - - 96

96a (95) Decorticated parts of podetia farinose-sorediate, soralia often sharply delimited towards the base - - - C. ochrochlora
96b Decorticated parts of podetia granular to microsquamulose, sometimes additionally with scattered soredia; granular/sorediate parts not sharply delimited - - - 97

97a (96) Scyphi reduced, often distinct only on fertile podetia, the others being subulate; podetia decorticated, except sometimes at the base, whitish; rarely fertile; pycnidia scarce, pale brown, few - - - C. subradiata
97b Scyphi well-developed, visible on the tips of all podetia; podetia more or less corticate at the base and at the scyphi, more brownish; regularly fertile; pycnidia black, numerous - - - C. polyscypha

 

111a (71) Podetia with granules or soredia, at least near the tips, usually together with phyllidia and/or microsquamules, often decorticated and with felty surface or with bare stereome - - - 112
111b Podetia without granules, soredia or microsquamules, sometimes with phyllidia, often with continuous, smooth or verrucose, cortex - - - 127

112a (111) Decorticated stereome longitudinally striate to grooved and angular - - - 113
112b Decorticated stereome smooth and rounded - - - 114

113a (112) Podetia smooth and corticate below, and decorticated, granulose-sorediate apically (atranorin and norstictic or psoromic acids) - - - C. acuminata
113b Podetia completely denudated, sparsely granulose to phyllidiate (fumarprotocetraric, stictic or psoromic acids) - - - C. cartilaginea

114a (112) K+ yellow - - - 115
114b K-negative - - - 123

115a (114) Podetia with deciduous granules and downward projecting squamules and phyllidia, often becoming denudated and showing a brownish, translucent stereome; hymenial discs and pycnidia red (barbatic or didymic or thamnolic acid) - - - C. didyma
115b Podetia remaining covered with medulla and propagules or becoming whitish when denudated; hymenial discs and pycnidia red or brown - - - 116

116a (115) Podetia with farinose soredia - - - 117
116b Podetia with granules and microsquamules (all species with thamnolic acid only) - - - 118

117a (116) Podetia cylindrical, hardly attenuated towards the tips, often corticated at base and near hymenial disks, abundantly covered with soredia (thamnolic or barbatic acids) - - - C. macilenta
117b Podetia subulate with acuminate tips, completely decorticated, often with denudated spots exposing the stereome (thamnolic acid) - - - C. macilentoides

118a (116) Podetia moderately branched, up to 2 cm tall, covered with granules, partly with microsquamules - - - C. palmicola
118b Podetia unbranched or branched, usually over 2 cm tall, predominantly covered with with phyllidia and microsquamules, towards the tips sometimes granulose to sorediate - - - 119

119a (118) Podetia slightly reddish at base - - - C. rhodoleuca
119b Podetia not reddish at base - - - 120

120a (119) Podetia 2-8 cm tall, branched with open axils, with dense phyllidia, towards the tips granular-sorediate - - - C. chondrotypa
120b Podetia 1.5-3 cm tall, scarcely branched, without open axils, with granules and verrucae, and abundant laciniate squamules - - - C. subdelicatula

 

123a (114) Podetia with deciduous granules and downward projecting phyllidia and squamules, soon denudated and showing a brownish, translucent stereome; hymenial discs and pycnidia red (barbatic or didymic or thamnolic acid) - - - C. didyma
123b Podetia with soredia or granules and microsquamules, remaining covered with medulla and propagules or, when denudated, not becoming translucent; hymenial discs and pycnidia red or brown - - - 124

124a (123) Podetia farinose-sorediate, sometimes mixed with granules and microsquamules - - - 125
124b Podetia granular and microsquamulose (fumarprotocetraric acid) - - - C. subradiata

125a (124) Podetia subulate with acuminate tips, partly denudated and exposing the grooved stereome (fumarprotocetraric acid) - - - C. corniculata
125b Podetia cylindrical, not acuminate at the tips, mostly covered by soredia (thamnolic or barbatic acid) - - - C. macilenta

 

127a (111) Podetia always with red hymenial discs and/or red pycnidia (often blackish below) - - - 128
127b Podetia with brown hymenial discs and pycnidia or without - - - 130

128a (127) Thallus squamules short and shallowly lobed, ca. 1-2 x 1 mm - - - 129
128b Thallus squamules deeply lobed with narrow laciniae, ca. 2-7 mm long and lobes 1-2 mm wide (didymic or barbatic or sekikaic acid agg.) - - - C. secundana

129a (128) Hymenial discs brown, pycnidia red (thamnolic and didymic acid) - - - C. metaminiata
129b Hymenial discs and pycnidia red (barbatic acid) - - - C. parvipes

130a (127) K+ yellow, with thamnolic acid - - - 131
130b K-, no thamnolic acid - - - 136

131a (130) Primary thallus squamules persistent, caespitose; podetia 0.8-3 mm thick, cylindrical without funnels (thamnolic acid) - - - C. friabilis
131b Primary thallus evanescent, not caespitose and usually inapparent; podetia mainly under 1 mm thick, often with funnels - - - 132

132a (131) Podetia slightly yellowish or greenish in colour, in older parts with pellucid stereome, to c. 2 mm tall (thamnolic and usnic acids) - - - C. marcellii
132b Podetia greyish to brownish, without pellucid stereome, often taller - - - 133

133a (132) Terminal funnels usually conspicuous; podetium surface matt - - - 134
133b No terminal funnels and axils mostly closed; surface of podetia and squamules somewhat glossy; deciduous squamules on podetia elongated and pointing downward (thamnolic, squamatic or barbatic acids) - - - C. sphacelata

134a (133) Podetia small, under 2 cm long and about 0.5 mm thick, mostly unbranched, subulate or with terminal funnels (thamnolic, sometimes with barbatic acid) - - - C. mutabilis
134b Podetia usually over 2 cm long and 1 mm thick - - - 135

135a (134) Podetial squamules elongated and pointing downward (thamnolic acid) - - - C. polystomata
135b Podetial squamules rounded and spreading (squamatic (not in Brazil) or thamnolic acid) - - - C. squamosa

136a (130) Podetia usually up to c. 1.5 cm long, not or scarcely and irregularly branched; primary thallus squamules persistent and usually conspicuous - - - 137
136b Podetia usually over 2 cm long, regularly dichotomously or polytomously branched - - - 140

137a (136) Podetia slightly irregularly branched, with rounded, convex phyllidia (fumarprotocetraric or stictic acid) - - - C. pityrophylla
137b Podetia usually unbranched or dichotomously branched, without phyllidia (fumarprotocetraric acid) - - - 138

138a (137) Podetia hollow, usually unbranched or with apical branchlets - - - 139
138b Podetia solid, dichotomously branched, often with corymbose apical branchlets bearing pycnidia; podetia solid - - - C. solida

139a (138) Podetia bare or with scarce short squamules, always bearing hymenial discs - - - C. peziziformis
139b Podetia densely covered by elongate, downward-pointing squamules, not always with hymenial discs - - - C. obtecta

140a (136) Podetia dichotomously branched, to over 10 cm long; fertile podetia with longitudinal slits (fumarprotocetraric acid) - - - C. furcata
140b Podetia polytomously branched from the margin of tiny scyphi, the branches sometimes also dichotomously branching; fertile podetia without slits, with scyphi (fumarprotocetraric acid) - - - C. fissidens

 


Species list

with state distribution in Brazil, dominant lichen substances and references to descriptions; 102 species. The illustrations are from Brazilian herbarium specimens preserved in B, unless otherwise indicated. More details on the specimens can be found on the website lichcol. Click on the picture for magnification.

Carassea connexa (Vain.) S. Stenroos - BA, MG, RJ (atranorin) Description in Ahti (2000: 166, sub Cladonia).

[Carassea connexa]
Carassea connexa (Sipman 40947).

Cladonia acuminata (Ach.) Norrlin - MG, RJ (atranorin and norstictic or psoromic acids) Description in Ahti (2000: 236).

[Cladonia acuminata]
Cladonia acuminata (Zwackh, Lich. exs. 951A).

Cladonia ahtii S. Stenroos - BA, MG, RS, SC, SP (didymic, barbatic or sekikaic acid agg.) Description in Ahti (2000: 179).

[Cladonia ahtii]
Cladonia ahtii (Sipman 41131).

Cladonia albofuscescens Vain. - BA, MG, PR, RJ (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 87).

[Cladonia albofuscescens]
Cladonia albofuscescens (Sipman 41043).

Cladonia anaemica (Nyl.) Ahti - MG, SP (barbatic or sekikaic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 182).

[Cladonia anaemica]
Cladonia anaemica (Follmann B 60 0129285).

Cladonia andesita Vain. - MG, RJ (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 91).

[Cladonia andesita] [Cladonia cartilaginea]
Cladonia andesita (Sipman 48296, from Costa Rica). Podetium surface.

Cladonia arbuscula ssp. boliviana (Ahti) Ahti - MG, RJ (usnic, protocetraric acids) Description in Ahti (2000: 43, sub Cladina).

[Cladonia arbuscula ssp. boliviana]
Cladonia arbuscula ssp. boliviana (Mattick 694).

Cladonia arcuata Ahti - MG, RJ, RS (fumarprotocetraric acid, sometimes with atranorin) Description in Ahti (2000: 67, sub Cladina).

[Cladonia arcuata]
Cladonia arcuata (Cleef & Jaramillo 4145, from Colombia).

Cladonia bahiana Ahti - BA, MG (thamnolic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 271).

[Cladonia bahiana]
Cladonia bahiana (Hatschbach & Ribas 54956).

Cladonia caespiticia (Pers.) Flörke - RS (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 237).

[Cladonia caespiticia]
Cladonia caespiticia (Lich. Eastern N. Amer. exs. 313, from New Yersea, USA).

Cladonia calycanthoides (Vain.) Ahti & Marcelli - MG (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 97).

[Cladonia calycanthoides]
Cladonia calycanthoides (Sipman 40926).

Cladonia carassensis Vain. - MG (thamnolic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 272).

[Cladonia carassensis]
Cladonia carassensis (Sipman 41054).

Cladonia cartilaginea Müll. Arg. - AM, ES, MG, MS, PB, PR, PE, RJ, RS, SP (fumarprotocetraric with or without stictic or homosekikaic, or psoromic acids) Description in Ahti (2000: 238).

[Cladonia cartilaginea] [Cladonia cartilaginea]
Cladonia cartilaginea (Mattick 1643). Cladonia cartilaginea (Mattick s.n.).
[Cladonia cartilaginea] [Cladonia cartilaginea]
Cladonia cartilaginea (Sipman 40703). Detail of Sipman 40703.

Cladonia ceratophylla (Sw.) Spreng. - BA, MG, PR, RJ, RS, SC, SP (fumarprotocetraric acid, often with atranorin) Description in Ahti (2000: 240).

[Cladonia ceratophylla]
Cladonia ceratophylla (Sipman 40783).

Cladonia chlorophaea (Flörke) Spreng. - RJ, RS, SP (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 98). For picture and comment see Cladonia merochlorophaea.

Cladonia chondrotypa Vain. - MG, PR, RJ, RS, SC, SP (thamnolic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 274).

[Cladonia chondrotypa]
Cladonia chondrotypa (Mattick 235).
[Cladonia chondrotypa] [Cladonia chondrotypa]
Cladonia cf. chondrotypa (Hatschbach & Campos 56382), deviating specimen. Cladonia cf. chondrotypa (Hatschbach & Campos 56382), deviating specimen.

Cladonia clathrata Ahti & Xavier Filho - BA, ES, MG, PB, PE, SE, SP (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 104).

[Cladonia clathrata]
Cladonia clathrata (Sipman 41048).

Cladonia coccifera (L.) Willd. - BA, ES, (usnic acid, zeorin) Description in Ahti (2000: 187).

[Cladonia coccifera]
Cladonia coccifera (Sipman & Döbbeler 42131, from Costa Rica).

Cladonia confusa R. Sant. - AM, BA, RJ, RS, SC, SP (usnic, perlatolic acids) Description in Ahti (2000: 58, sub Cladina).

[Cladonia confusa]
Cladonia confusa (Follmann B 60 0145337).

Cladonia consimilis Vain. - MG, SP (thamnolic or squamatic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 275).

[Cladonia consimilis]
Cladonia consimilis (Follmann B 60 0145338).

Cladonia corallifera (Kunze) Nyl. - AM, MG, MS, PA, RO, RR (usnic and thamnolic or didymic or sekikaic acid agg.) Description in Ahti (2000: 188).

[Cladonia corallifera]
Cladonia corallifera (Pipoly et al. 9216, from Guyana).

Cladonia corniculata Ahti & Kashiwadani - MG, RJ, RS, SC, SP (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 106).

[Cladonia corniculata]
Cladonia corniculata (Kappelle 2706a, from Costa Rica).

Cladonia crinita (Delise) Ahti - BA, MG, RJ (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 108).

[Cladonia crinita] [Cladonia cartilaginea]
Cladonia crinita (Sipman 40811). cartilaginous strands in central cavity of podetium.

Cladonia crispatula (Nyl.) Ahti - BA, ES, MG, PR, RJ, RS, SC, SP (thamnolic or barbatic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 278).

[Cladonia crispatula]
Cladonia crispatula (Follmann B 60 0145339).

Cladonia crustacea Ahti - MG, RJ, SP (thamnolic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 191).

[Cladonia crustacea]
Cladonia crustacea (Sipman 40901).

Cladonia curta Ahti & Marcelli - DF, SP (barbatic and didymic acids) Description in Ahti (2000: 192).

[Cladonia curta]
Cladonia curta (Follmann B 60 0129048).

Cladonia dactylota Tuck. - MG, RJ, RG (psoromic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 110).

[Cladonia dactylota] [Cladonia cartilaginea]
Cladonia dactylota (Buck 5726, from Jamaica). Detail with soralia.

Cladonia dendroides (Abbayes) Ahti - BA, PB, PR, PE, RJ, SC (atranorin, fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 71).

[Cladonia dendroides]
Cladonia dendroides (Mattick 331).

Cladonia didyma (Fée) Vain. - AM, BA, DF, ES, MG, PA, PR, PE, RJ, RN, RS, RO, RR, SC, SP (barbatic or didymic or thamnolic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 193).

[Cladonia didyma] [Cladonia cartilaginea]
Cladonia didyma (Sipman 40945). Podetium surface.

Cladonia dissecta Ahti - BA (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 114).

no picture available.

Cladonia divaricata Nyl. - PA, MG (usnic, fumarprotocetraric acids) Description in Ahti (2000: 327).

[Cladonia divaricata]
Cladonia divaricata (Sipman 40820).

Cladonia farinophylla Ahti - RJ (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 248).

No picture available.

Cladonia fissidens Ahti & Marcelli - MG, PR, RJ (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 116).

[Cladonia fissidens]
Cladonia fissidens (Sipman 40922).

Cladonia flagellaris Ahti & Marcelli - MG, PR, RJ, SP (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 117).

[Cladonia flagellaris]
Cladonia flagellaris (Sipman 41050).

Cladonia fleigiae Ahti & S. Stenroos - MG (thamnolic acid) Description in Stenroos et al. (2002: 243).

[Cladonia fleigiae] [Cladonia fleigiae]
Cladonia fleigiae (Follmann B 60 0129405). Cladonia fleigiae (Ahti 55450).

Cladonia friabilis Ahti - BA, MG (thamnolic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 282).

[Cladonia friabilis]
Cladonia friabilis (Marcelli et al. 27993).

Cladonia furcata (Huds.) Schrad. - BA, DF, MG, PE, RJ, RS, SC, SP (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 167).

[Cladonia furcata]
Cladonia furcata (Hatschbach & Barbosa 55366).

Cladonia furfuracea Vain. - AM, ES, PB, PR, PE, RJ, RR, RS, SC, SE, SP (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 118).

[Cladonia furfuracea] [Cladonia cartilaginea]
Cladonia furfuracea (Sipman40960). Podetium surface.

Cladonia grayi G. Merrill - MG, RJ, RS, SC, SP (grayanic acid with or without fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 119). For picture see Cladonia merochlorophaea.

Cladonia humilis (With.) J.R. Laundon - (atranorin and fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 122).

[Cladonia humilis]
Cladonia humilis (Harris 17057, from Ecuador).

Cladonia hypomelaena (Vain.) S. Stenroos - MG (didymic acid) Description in Stenroos et al. (2002: 244).

[Cladonia hypomelaena]
Cladonia hypomelaena (Sipman 40952).

Cladonia hypoxanthoides Vain. - MG (thamnolic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 203).

no picture available

Cladonia ibitipocae Ahti & S. Stenroos - MG (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 328).

[Cladonia ibitipocae]
Cladonia ibitipocae (Sipman 40812).

Cladonia imperialis Ahti & Marcelli - MG, RJ, SP (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 124).

[Cladonia imperialis]
Cladonia imperialis (Mattick 684).

Cladonia itatiaiae Ahti & Marcelli - MG, RJ (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 128).

[Cladonia itatiaiae]
Cladonia itatiaiae (Mattick 220).

Cladonia kalbii Ahti - BA, ES, MG, PR, RJ, SE (atranorin, fumarprotocetraric acid, sometimes with physodalic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 53, sub Cladina).

[Cladonia kalbii]
Cladonia kalbii (Stenroos et al. 3851).

Cladonia kriegeri Ahti & Stenroos - MG, RJ (usnic, fumarprotocetraric acids) Description in Ahti (2000: 55, sub Cladina).

[Cladonia kriegeri]
Cladonia kriegeri (Ginzberger B 60 0020793).

Cladonia latiloba Ahti & Marcelli - RJ, RS, SC, SP (atranorin and stictic acid agg., once atranorin and norstictic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 249).

[Cladonia latiloba]
Cladonia latiloba (Mattick 1647).

Cladonia litoralis Gumboski & Eliasaro - SC (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Gumboski & Eliasaro (2011: 665).

no picture available.

Cladonia macilenta Hoffm. - ES, MG, PR, RJ, RS, SC, SP (thamnolic or barbatic acids) Description in Ahti (2000: 208).

[Cladonia macilenta]
Cladonia macilenta (Mattick 16,8).

Cladonia macilentoides Ahti & Fleig - MG, RJ, RS, SP (thamnolic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 213).

[Cladonia macilentoides] [Cladonia cartilaginea]
Cladonia macilentoides (Mattick 686). Podetium surface.

Cladonia marcellii Ahti & S. Stenroos - GO, MG (thamnolic and usnic acids) Description in Ahti (2000: 288).

[Cladonia marcellii]
Cladonia marcellii (Sipman 40806).

Cladonia megaphylla Ahti & Marcelli - DF, MT (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 251).

no picture available

Cladonia meridionalis Vain. - PR, SP (obtusatic and barbatic acids) Description in Ahti (2000: 215).

[Cladonia meridionalis]
Cladonia meridionalis (Mattick 1013).

Cladonia merochlorophaea Asah. - RS (merochlorophaeic acid with fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 134). A chemically variable group, the chemotypes often distinguished as separate species: fumarprotocetraric acid alone = Cladonia chlorophaea; grayanic acid with or without fumarprotocetraric acid = Cladonia grayi; merochlorophaeic acid with fumarprotocetraric acid = Cladonia merochlorophaea; sekikaic acid agg. with fumarprotocetraric acid = Cladonia novochlorophaea. The material included here in C. chlorophaea may be a chemotype of the C. merochlorophaea group rather than C. chlorophaea in strict sense.

[Cladonia merochlorophaea]
Cladonia merochlorophaea (Sipman 40936).

Cladonia metaminiata S. Stenroos & Ahti - MG (thamnolic and didymic acids) Description in Ahti (2000: 216).

[Cladonia metaminiata]
Cladonia metaminiata (Sipman 40896).

Cladonia minarum Ahti - MG, RJ (usnic and fumarprotocetraric acids, once with usnic and norstictic acid; usnic acid occasionally absent) Description in Ahti (2000: 328).

[Cladonia minarum] [Cladonia cf. minarum]
Cladonia minarum (Sipman 40921). Cladonia minarum (Sipman 41057a), deviating specimen with norstictic instead of fumarprotocetraric acid.

Cladonia miniata G. Meyer - BA, GO, MG, PR, RJ, RR, RS, SP(barbatic, didymic or other (no usnic) acids; occasionally lacking red pigment in thallus) Description in Ahti (2000: 218).

[Cladonia miniata] [Cladonia miniata]
Cladonia miniata (Follmann B 60 0129408). Cladonia miniata (Follmann B 60 0135128), deviating specimen with isidioid structures.

Cladonia mutabilis Vain. - MG, RJ (thamnolic, sometimes with barbatic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 290).

[Cladonia mutabilis] [Cladonia mutabilis]
Cladonia mutabilis (Mattick 1627). Cladonia mutabilis (Sipman 40825).

Cladonia nana Vain. - AM, BA, RJ, RR, RS, SC, SP (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 253).

[Cladonia nana]
Cladonia nana (Bach et al. 701, from Bolivia).

Cladonia novochlorophaea (Sipman) Brodo & Ahti - MG (sekikaic acid agg. with fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 136). For picture see Cladonia merochlorophaea.

Cladonia obscurata Ahti - BA, MG (thamnolic with or without barbatic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 290).

[Cladonia obscurata]
Cladonia obscurata (Sipman 41053).

Cladonia obtecta Ahti - MG (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 255).

no picture available

Cladonia ochracea L. Scriba - ES, MS, MG, RJ, RS, SC, SP (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 136).

[Cladonia ochracea]
Cladonia ochracea (Sandst., Clad. exs. 1006).

Cladonia ochrochlora Flörke - MG, RJ, RS, SP (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 137).

[Cladonia ochrochlora] [Cladonia cartilaginea]
Cladonia ochrochlora (Sipman 41109). Podetium surface.

Cladonia palmicola Ahti & Fleig - RS (thamnolic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 292).

no picture available

Cladonia parvipes (Vain.) S. Stenroos - BA, ES, MG, SC, SE (barbatic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 221).

[Cladonia parvipes]
Cladonia parvipes (Sipman 40880).

Cladonia penicillata (Vain.) Ahti & Marcelli - BA, ES, GO, MG, PR, RJ, RS, SP (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 139).

[Cladonia penicillata] [Cladonia cartilaginea]
Cladonia penicillata (Sipman 40937). penicillate scyphi with black tufts of squarrose rhizines.

Cladonia perfilata Hook. - MG, RJ (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 140).

[Cladonia perfilata]
Cladonia perfilata (Mattick 227).

Cladonia peziziformis (With.) J.R. Laundon - PE, RJ, RS, SC, SP (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 256).

[Cladonia peziziformis]
Cladonia peziziformis (Mattick 223).

Cladonia piedadensis Ahti - MG (didymic acid agg., often with barbatic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 223).

[Cladonia piedadensis]
Cladonia piedadensis (Ahti 55295).

Cladonia pityrophylla Nyl. - BA, DF, MG, MT, PA, PB, PE, PR, RJ, RR, RS, SC, SE, SP (fumarprotocetraric or stictic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 258).

[Cladonia pityrophylla] [Cladonia pityrophylla]
Cladonia pityrophylla (Sipman 40705). Cladonia pityrophylla (Cordeiro & Guimaraes 761).
[Cladonia pityrophylla]
Podetia enlarged (Sipman 40705).

Cladonia polyscypha Ahti & Xavier Filho - AM, PB, PE, RJ, SE, SP (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 144).

[Cladonia polyscypha] [Cladonia pityrophylla]
Cladonia polyscypha (Silva 1038). Podetium surface.

Cladonia polystomata Ahti & Sipman - AM, MG, PR, RJ, SC, SP (thamnolic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 294).

[Cladonia polystomata] [Cladonia polystomata]
Cladonia polystomata (Mattick 16,96). Cladonia cf. polystomata, deviating specimen with barbatic acid (Mattick 631c).

Cladonia polytypa Vain. - MG (thamnolic acid, sometimes with barbatic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 296).

[Cladonia polytypa] [Cladonia polytypa]
Cladonia polytypa (Marcelli et al. 25525). Cladonia polytypa (Sipman 40935).

Cladonia pumila Ahti - MG (sekikaic acid agg.) Description in Ahti (2000: 225).

[Cladonia cf. pumila]
Cladonia cf. pumila, deviating specimen of unclear affinity, with didymic and thamnolic acids (Sipman 40946)

Cladonia pyxidata (L.) Hoffm. agg. - BA, MG, RJ, RS (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 148).

[Cladonia pyxidata]
Cladonia pyxidata (Sipman 41092).

Cladonia ramulosa (With.) J.R. Laundon agg. - AM, MG, PR, RJ, RR, RS, SC, SP (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 149).

[Cladonia ramulosa]
Cladonia ramulosa (Mattick 16,35).

Cladonia rappii A. Evans - MG, RJ, RS, SC, SP (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 152).

[Cladonia rappii] [Cladonia rappii]
Cladonia rappii (Maas & Martinelli 3363). Cladonia rappii (Hatschbach & Ribas 61652).

Cladonia rhodoleuca Vain. - BA, MG, PB, PE, SP (thamnolic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 297).

no picture available

Cladonia robbinsii A. Evans - RS (usnic and barbatic acids) Description in Ahti (2000: 316).

[Cladonia robbinsii]
Cladonia robbinsii (Culberson 19719, from Illenois, USA).

Cladonia rugicaulis Ahti - ES, PB, SE (thamnolic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 298).

no picture available

Cladonia salmonea S. Stenroos - MG, RJ (usnic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 228).

[Cladonia salmonea]
Cladonia salmonea (Sipman 40842).

Cladonia salzmannii Nyl. - BA, PB, PE, SE (barbatic, rarely thamnolic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 302).

[Cladonia salzmannii]
Cladonia salzmannii (Boom et al. 700).

Cladonia secundana Nyl. - AM, BA, ES, MG, PA, PB, PE, RJ, RR, SC, SE (didymic, barbatic or sekikaic acid agg.) Description in Ahti (2000: 229).

[Cladonia secundana]
Cladonia secundana (Plowman et al. 9763).

Cladonia signata (Eschw.) Vain. - AM, BA, MG, PA, PR, RJ, SC, SP (sekikaic acid agg., fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 173).

[Cladonia signata]
Cladonia signata (Follmann B 60 0129421).

Cladonia solida Vain. - MG, PR, RJ, RS, SC, SP (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 260).

[Cladonia solida]
Cladonia solida (Sipman 12666).

Cladonia sphacelata Vain. - PB, PE, PR, RJ, SC, SP (thamnolic, squamatic or barbatic acids) Description in Ahti (2000: 305).

[Cladonia sphacelata] [Cladonia pityrophylla]
Cladonia sphacelata (Mattick 289). Podetium surface.

Cladonia squamosa Hoffm. - RJ, SC, SP (squamatic (not in Brazil) or thamnolic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 308).

[Cladonia squamosa] [Cladonia squamosa]
Cladonia squamosa (Wiegleb 345, from Venezuela). Cladonia squamosa (Sipman et al. 37779, from El Salvador).

Cladonia stenroosiae Ahti - MG (usnic, stictic acids) Description in Stenroos et al. (2002: 244).

[Cladonia stenroosiae]
Cladonia stenroosiae (Sipman 41052), with partly swollen, fertile podetia.

Cladonia strepsilis (Ach.) Grognot - PR, RS, SP (squamatic and baeomycesic acid and strepsilin) Description in Ahti (2000: 317).

[Cladonia strepsilis]
Cladonia strepsilis (Hatschbach 24483).

Cladonia subcariosa Nyl. - PR, RS, SC (norstictic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 263).

[Cladonia subcariosa]
Cladonia subcariosa (Sipman 40706).

Cladonia subdelicatula Vain. - AM, MG, PR, RJ, RS, SC, SP (thamnolic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 312).

[Cladonia subcariosa]
Cladonia subdelicatula (v. d. Boom 40089), from La Réunion.

Cladonia subminiata S. Stenroos - PB, PE, SE (usnic and didymic acids) Description in Ahti (2000: 231).

no picture available

Cladonia subradiata (Vain.) Sandstede - AC, AM, BA, DF, ES, MG, MS, MT, PA, PB, PE, PR, RJ, RO, RR, RS, SC, SE, SP (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 155).

[Cladonia subradiata]
Cladonia subradiata (Poliquesi & Silva 107).

Cladonia subreticulata Ahti - BA, MG (usnic with stictic or fumarprotocetraric acids and terpenoid; stictic acid may be associated with traces of norstictic and cryptostictic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 337).

[Cladonia subreticulata]
Cladonia subreticulata (Mattick 805).

Cladonia subsquamosa Kremp. - BA, ES, GO, MG, PB, PE, PR, RJ, RS, SC, SE, SP (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 160).

[Cladonia subsquamosa]
Cladonia subsquamosa (Sipman 41089).

Cladonia substellata Vain. - BA, ES, MG, PB, PE, RJ, SC, SE (terpenoid, usnic and stictic acids, associated with trace of cryptostictic and probably consticic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 339).

[Cladonia substellata]
Cladonia substellata (Sipman 40824).

Cladonia symphycarpia (Flörke) Fr. - RS (norstictic acid and atranorin) Description in Ahti (2000: 265).

[Cladonia symphycarpia]
Cladonia symphycarpia (Sipman 12623, from Switzerland).

Cladonia testaceopallens Vain. - DF, MG, RJ, SP (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 267).

no picture available

Cladonia turgidior (Nyl.) Ahti - BA, ES, GO, MG, RJ, SC (thamnolic acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 313).

[Cladonia turgidior]
Cladonia turgidior (Sipman 41055).

Cladonia verticillaris (Raddi) Fr. - BA, ES, GO, MG, PB, PE, PR, RJ (fumarprotocetraric acid) Description in Ahti (2000: 164).

[Cladonia verticillaris]
Cladonia verticillaris (Sipman 40817).
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page editor: Harrie Sipman, this page last updated 24 May 2013, imprint
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