International Code of Botanical Nomenclature

(Tokyo Code), Electronic version



Recommendation 50A

50A.1. In the citation of a name invalidly published as a synonym, the words "as synonym" or "pro syn." should be added.

Recommendation 50B

50B.1. In the citation of a nomen nudum, its status should be indicated by adding the words "nomen nudum" or "nom. nud."

Ex. 1. "Carex bebbii" (Olney, Car. Bor.-Am. 2: 12. 1871), published without a description or diagnosis, should be cited as Carex bebbii Olney, nomen nudum (or nom. nud.).

Recommendation 50C

50C.1. The citation of a later homonym should be followed by the name of the author of the earlier homonym preceded by the word "non", preferably with the date of publication added. In some instances it will be advisable to cite also any other homonyms, preceded by the word "nec".

Ex. 1. Ulmus racemosa Thomas in Amer. J. Sci. Arts 19: 170. 1831, non Borkh. 1800; Lindera Thunb., Nov. Gen. Pl.: 64. 1783, non Adans. 1763; Bartlingia Brongn. in Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) 10: 373. 1827, non Rchb. 1824 nec F. Muell. 1882.

Recommendation 50D

50D.1. Misidentifications should not be included in synonymies but added after them. A misapplied name should be indicated by the words "auct. non" followed by the name of the original author and the bibliographic reference of the misidentification.

Ex. 1. Ficus stortophylla Warb. in Ann. Mus. Congo Belge, B, Bot., ser. 4, 1: 32. 1904. F. irumuënsis De Wild., Pl. Bequaert. 1: 341. 1922. F. exasperata auct. non Vahl: De Wildeman & Durand in Ann. Mus. Congo Belge, B, Bot., ser. 2, 1: 54. 1899; De Wildeman, Miss. Em. Laurent: 26. 1905; Durand & Durand, Syll. Fl. Congol.: 505. 1909.

Recommendation 50E

50E.1. If a generic or specific name is accepted as a nomen conservandum (see Art. 14 and App. III) the abbreviation "nom. cons." should be added in a full citation.

Ex. 1. Protea L., Mant. Pl.: 187. 1771, nom. cons., non L. 1753; Combretum Loefl. (1758), nom. cons. [= Grislea L. 1753].

50E.2. If it is desirable to indicate the sanctioned status of the names of fungi adopted by Persoon or Fries (see Art. 13.1(d)), ": Pers." or ": Fr." should be added to the citation.

Ex. 2. Boletus piperatus Bull. (Herb. France: t. 451, f. 2. 1790) was accepted in Fries (Syst. Mycol. 1: 388. 1821) and was thereby sanctioned. It may thus be cited as B. piperatus Bull. : Fr.

Recommendation 50F

50F.1. If a name is cited with alterations from the form as originally published, it is desirable that in full citations the exact original form should be added, preferably between single or double quotation marks.

Ex. 1. Pyrus calleryana Decne. (P. mairei H. Lév. in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 12: 189. 1913, "Pirus").

Ex. 2. Zanthoxylum cribrosum Spreng., Syst. Veg. 1: 946. 1825, "Xanthoxylon". (Z. caribaeum var. floridanum (Nutt.) A. Gray in Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 23: 225. 1888, "Xanthoxylum").

Ex. 3. Spathiphyllum solomonense Nicolson in Amer. J. Bot. 54: 496. 1967, "solomonensis".

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