International Code of Botanical Nomenclature

(Tokyo Code), Electronic version



Article 32

32.1. In order to be validly published, a name of a taxon (autonyms excepted) must: (a) be effectively published (see Art. 29, 30, 31) on or after the starting-point date of the respective group (Art. 13.1); (b) have a form which complies with the provisions of Art. 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 (but see Art. 18.3 and 19.6), and Art. H.6 and H.7; (c) be accompanied by a description or diagnosis or by a reference to a previously and effectively published description or diagnosis (except as provided in Art. 42.3, 44.1, and H.9); and (d) comply with the special provisions of Art. 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45 (see also Art. 61). In addition, subject to the approval of the XVI International Botanical Congress, names (autonyms excepted) published on or after 1 January 2000 must be registered.

Ex. 1. "Egeria" (Néraud in Gaudichaud, Voy. Uranie, Bot.: 25, 28. 1826), published without a description or a diagnosis or a reference to a former one, was not validly published.

Ex. 2. "Loranthus macrosolen Steud." originally appeared without a description or diagnosis on the printed labels issued about the year 1843 with Sect. II, No. 529, 1288, of Schimper's herbarium specimens of Abyssinian plants; the name was not validly published, however, until Richard (Tent. Fl. Abyss. 1: 340. 1847) supplied a description.

*Ex. 3. In Don, Sweet's Hortus britannicus, ed. 3 (1839), for each listed species the flower colour, the duration of the plant, and a translation into English of the specific epithet are given in tabular form. In many genera the flower colour and duration may be identical for all species and clearly their mention is not intended as a validating description or diagnosis. New names appearing in that work are therefore not validly published, except in some cases where reference is made to earlier descriptions or diagnoses or to validly published basionyms.

32.2. Registration is effected by sending the printed matter that includes the protologue(s), with the name(s) to be registered clearly identified, to any registering office designated by the International Association for Plant Taxonomy.

32.3. A diagnosis of a taxon is a statement of that which in the opinion of its author distinguishes the taxon from others.

32.4. For the purpose of valid publication of a name, reference to a previously and effectively published description or diagnosis may be direct or indirect (Art. 32.5). For names published on or after 1 January 1953 it must, however, be full and direct as specified in Art. 33.2.

32.5. An indirect reference is a clear indication, by the citation of the author's name or in some other way, that a previously and effectively published description or diagnosis applies.

Ex. 4. "Kratzmannia" (Opiz in Berchtold & Opiz, Oekon.-Techn. Fl. Böhm. 1: 398. 1836) was published with a diagnosis but was not definitely accepted by the author and therefore was not validly published. Kratzmannia Opiz (Seznam: 56. 1852), lacking description or diagnosis, is however definitely accepted, and its citation as "Kratzmannia O." constitutes indirect reference to the diagnosis published in 1836.

Ex. 5. Opiz published the name of the genus Hemisphace (Benth.) Opiz (1852) without a description or diagnosis, but as he wrote "Hemisphace Benth." he indirectly referred to the previously effectively published description by Bentham (Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 193. 1833) of Salvia sect. Hemisphace.

Ex. 6. The new combination Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.) W. Watson (1882) is validated by the addition of the number "309", which, as explained at the top of the same page, is the running-number of the species (Andropogon martini Roxb.) in Steudel (Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 388. 1854). Although the reference to the basionym Andropogon martini is indirect, it is unambiguous (see also Rec. 60C.2).

Ex. 7. Miller (1768), in the preface to The gardeners dictionary, ed. 8, stated that he had "now applied Linnaeus's method entirely except in such particulars ...", of which he gave examples. In the main text, he often referred to Linnaean genera under his own generic headings, e.g., to Cactus L. [pro parte] under Opuntia Mill. Therefore an implicit reference to a Linnaean binomial may be assumed when this is appropriate, and Miller's binomials accepted as new combinations (e.g., Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., based on Cactus ficus-indica L.) or avowed substitutes (e.g., Opuntia vulgaris Mill., based on Cactus opuntia L., where both names have the reference to "Opuntia vulgo herbariorum" of Bauhin & Cherler in common).

Ex. 8. In Kummer's Führer in die Pilzkunde (1871) the statement that the author intended to adopt at generic rank the subdivisions of Agaricus then in use, which at the time were those of Fries, and the general arrangement of the work, which faithfully follows that of Fries, provide indirect reference to Fries's earlier names of "tribes". Therefore, names such as Hypholoma (Fr. : Fr.) P. Kumm. are accepted as being based on the corresponding Friesian names (here: A. "tribus" Hypholoma Fr. : Fr.) although Kummer did not explicitly refer to Fries.

32.6. Names published with an incorrect Latin termination but otherwise in accordance with this Code are regarded as validly published; they are to be changed to accord with Art. 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, and 24, without change of the author's name or date of publication (see also Art. 60.11).

32.7. Autonyms (Art. 6.8) are accepted as validly published names, dating from the publication in which they were established (see Art. 22.3 and 26.3), whether or not they appear in print in that publication.

32.8. Names in specified ranks included in publications listed as suppressed works (opera utique oppressa; App. V) are not validly published. Proposals for the addition of publications to App. V must be submitted to the General Committee (see Div. III), which will refer them for examination to the committees for the various taxonomic groups (see Rec. 32F; see also Art. 14.14 and Rec. 14A).

32.9. When a proposal for the suppression of a publication has been approved by the General Committee after study by the committees for the taxonomic groups concerned, treating that publication as suppressed is authorized subject to the decision of a later International Botanical Congress.

Note 1. For valid publication of names of plant taxa that were originally not treated as plants, see Art. 45.5.

Recommendation 32A

32A.1. A name should not be validated solely by a reference to a description or diagnosis published before 1753.

Recommendation 32B

32B.1. The description or diagnosis of any new taxon should mention the points in which the taxon differs from its allies.

Recommendation 32C

32C.1. Authors should avoid adoption of a name which has been previously but not validly published for a different taxon.

Recommendation 32D

32D.1. In describing or diagnosing new taxa, authors should, when possible, supply figures with details of structure as an aid to identification.

32D.2. In the explanation of the figures, authors should indicate the specimen(s) on which they are based (see also Rec. 8A.2).

32D.3. Authors should indicate clearly and precisely the scale of the figures which they publish.

Recommendation 32E

32E.1. Descriptions or diagnoses of parasitic plants should always be followed by indication of the hosts, especially those of parasitic fungi. The hosts should be designated by their scientific names and not solely by names in modern languages, the applications of which are often doubtful.

Recommendation 32F

32F.1. When a proposal for the suppression of a publication under Art. 32.8 has been referred to the appropriate committees for study, authors should follow existing usage as far as possible pending the General Committee's recommendation on the proposal.

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