International Code of Botanical Nomenclature

(Tokyo Code), Electronic version




The names of families printed in bold-face italics are to be retained in all cases, with priority over unlisted synonyms (Art. 14.5) and homonyms (Art. 14.10).

When two listed names compete, the earlier must be retained unless the contrary is indicated or one of the competing names is listed in Art. 18.5. For any family including the type of an alternative family name, one or the other of these alternative names is to be used.

For purposes of this list the starting point for Spermatophyta is Jussieu's Genera plantarum (4 Aug 1789); earlier usage of listed names has been disregarded, irrespective of the fact that for family names the starting point is the same as for all other names of Spermatophyta, 1 May 1753. A decision of the Tokyo Congress authorizes, for the time being, the maintenance of authorship and dates of publication of names as listed in this Appendix (Art. 14 Note 1, footnote).

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