45.1. The date of a name is that of its valid publication. When the various conditions for valid publication are not simultaneously fulfilled, the date is that on which the last is fulfilled. However, the name must always be explicitly accepted in the place of its validation. A name published on or after 1 January 1973 for which the various conditions for valid publication are not simultaneously fulfilled is not validly published unless a full and direct reference
(Art. 33.3) is given to the places where these requirements were previously fulfilled.
Ex. 1. "Clypeola minor" first appeared in the Linnaean thesis
Flora monspeliensis (1756), in a list of names preceded by numerals but without an explanation of the meaning of these numerals and without any other descriptive matter; when the thesis was reprinted in vol. 4 of the
Amoenitates academicae (1759), a statement was added explaining that the numbers referred to earlier descriptions published in Magnol's
Botanicon monspeliense. However, "Clypeola minor" was absent from the reprint, being no longer accepted by Linnaeus, and was not therefore validly published.
Ex. 2. When proposing "Graphis meridionalis" as a new species, Nakanishi (in J. Sci. Hiroshima Univ., Ser. B(2), 11: 75. 1966) provided a Latin description but failed to designate a holotype.
G. meridionalis M. Nakan. was validly published in 1967 (in J. Sci. Hiroshima Univ., Ser. B(2), 11: 265) when he designated the holotype of the name and provided a full and direct reference to the previous publication.
45.2. A correction of the original spelling of a name (see
Art. 32.5 and 60) does not affect its date of valid publication.
Ex. 3. The correction of the erroneous spelling of
Gluta "benghas" (Linnaeus, Mant.: 293. 1771) to G. renghas L. does not affect the date of publication of the name even though the correction dates only from 1883 (Engler in Candolle & Candolle, Monogr. Phan. 4: 225).
45.3. For purposes of priority only legitimate names are taken into consideration (see Art. 11, 52-54). However, validly published earlier homonyms, whether legitimate or not, shall cause rejection of their later homonyms, unless the latter are conserved or sanctioned (but see
Art. 15 Note 1).
45.4. If a taxon originally assigned to a group not covered by this
Code is treated as belonging to a group of plants other than algae, the authorship and date of any of its names are determined by the first publication that satisfies the requirements for valid publication under this
Code. If the taxon is treated as belonging to the algae, any of its names need satisfy only the requirements of the pertinent non-botanical
Code for status equivalent to valid publication under the present Code (but see
Art. 54, regarding homonymy).
Ex. 4. Amphiprora Ehrenb. (1843) is an available name for a genus of animals first treated as belonging to the algae by Kützing (1844).
Amphiprora has priority in botanical nomenclature from 1843, not 1844.
Ex. 5. Petalodinium Cachon & Cachon-Enj. (in Protistologia 5: 16. 1969) is available under the
International code of zoological nomenclature as the name of a genus of dinoflagellates. When the taxon is treated as belonging to the algae, its name retains its original authorship and date even though the original publication lacked a Latin description or diagnosis.
Ex. 6. Labyrinthodyction Valkanov (in Progr. Protozool. 3: 373. 1969), although available under the
International code of zoological nomenclature as the name of a genus of rhizopods, is not valid when the taxon is treated as belonging to the fungi because the original publication lacked a Latin description or diagnosis.
Ex. 7. Protodiniferaceae Kof. & Swezy (in Mem. Univ. Calif. 5: 111. 1921,
"Protodiniferidae"), available under the International code of zoological nomenclature, is validly published as a name of a family of algae with its original authorship and date but with the original termination changed in accordance with
Art. 18.4 and 32.5.
45A.1. Authors using new names in works (floras, catalogues, etc.) written in a modern language should simultaneously comply with the requirements of valid publication.
45B.1. Authors should indicate precisely the dates of publication of their works. In a work appearing in parts the last-published sheet of the volume should indicate the precise dates on which the different fascicles or parts of the volume were published as well as the number of pages and plates in each.
45C.1. On separately printed and issued copies of works published in a periodical, the name of the periodical, the number of its volume or parts, the original pagination, and the date (year, month, and day) should be indicated.
Subject index | Index to scientific names
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(c) by International Association for Plant Taxonomy. This page last updated Feb. 12, 2001.